I 'All 1 'ff; L.,- :?A) ^ f«^*Av "^ r*^^>-> r^^id*>s ;r ^^.f- »V. (Cif^t^.^V (vr ^^ ■-fr^'. For Reference ^O NOT TO BE TAKEN FROM THIS ROOM on. «o. «»ss m> ^-%^^^Jr^, /Cv/J 8 s ^P^3 K^ ri /TIE IS^^ ^ ^ v^. el-^ s ^^^& ^m ^ ^^^S ^^i ^ S^^^M. 1^^ M =^-S<? 3*:'5!'^ ( iKel-S<: \Gii Wj s4l^ 'm^ m i-^ ,^. Digitized by the Internet Arcinive in 2010 witii funding from Joyner Library, East Carolina University http://www.archive.org/details/trainingschoolqu31east o Wijt framing ^cljool dSuarterlp ^pril, iWap, fune 1915 EDWARDS » BROUOHTON PRINTING CO R^LEIOH H S Table of Contents Extension Teaching in Agriculture and Household Arts in Ireland, A. C. MOXAHAN Pictures — Educative and Decorative John J. Blaib Art in Child Life Jaques Bcsbee Public School Drawing Kate W. Lewis Dining-room Decorations at the Training School Maby Raxkin Pine Needle Basketry .^ Fax.xie Lee Speib County Commencements Daisy Bailey Waitt Editorials. ' , Suggestions — Bird Study in the First Grade Miriam McFadyeit Making Bean Bags in the Second Grade Mylitta Mobbis Design in the Fourth Grade. Miscellaneous Suggestions for the Third Grade. Illustrating Rhymes Millie Roebuck Question Box. Reviews. Alumnae. School Organizations. School Notes. School Spice. Scenes Fuo.m 'The School i-oi: Sianuai, ^fje draining ^tfjool (0uartei:lj> Vol. II. APRIL, MAY, JUNE, 1915. No. 1. Extension Teaching in Agriculture and Household Arts in Ireland A. C. MONAHAN Specialist in Rural Education United States Bureau of Education. CHE growth of the movement in the United States for extension teaching in Agriculture and Household Arts on the part of the State Colleges of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts during the past ten years has created great interest in this subject. Especially is this so at the present time on account of the action of the last Congress in providing Federal aid to these institutions for such extension work under what is knovm as the Smith-Lever Act. Information is being sought in all parts of the world where similar undertakings are to be found in order that the best schemes in operation may be made use of in the United States. Among various countries of Europe from which valuable les- sons for the United States may be obtained is Ireland. The Irish plan of extension teaching in Agriculture and Household Arts is probably the best organized in the world, not only on paper, but in practice as well. The writer spent several months in Europe early in 1914, studying the work of various educational agencies for the benefit of rural people, one month of which was spent in Ireland, making a special study of this extension teaching. There are four distinct movements in Ireland for the bettennent of rural folk which are attracting world attention. The first is the work of the Congested Districts Board, organized about sixteen years ago by an act of Parliament and charged with the duty and authority to pur- chase, at forced sale if necessary, the great estates given over to grazing cattle and sheep, to divide these estates into forty-acre fanns, and to sell these small farms to Irish peasants living in the "congested districts." This term is applied to certain sections — in the peat bogs and on the mountain sides — where the population is many times greater than the land is capable of supporting. The population in these districts are the descendants of tenants evicted from the good agricultural lands now being divided when such lands were turned over from cultivation to gi'az- ing. These large estates have been owned since the conquest of Ireland by Oliver Cromwell by English landlords and were farmed by Irish tenants. "When American agricultural products found the English mar- ket in large quantities, beef and mutton became more profitable than other agricultural products. Tenants were forced from their holdings 2 Thk Tkainino School Quautkkly. by exorbitant rents, so that the land might be turned into pasturage. The only places open to them for settlement were the bad lauds in the peat moors and on the rocky mountain sides. "Dug over" peat land — that is, land from which the peat has been removed — is capable of culti- vation. Tiny patches of the mountain sides were cleared of stones and used as gardens. The conditions under which people were living in the peat moors and on the mountains is hardly imaginable and is almost im- possible of description. Such a description, however, is unnecessary here. To these people the good agricultural lands are now being opened up, slowly, of course, as time is required to settle litigations with land- owners who are unwilling to give up their estates, and to sur\'ey and divide the estates, to build the necessary roadways, provide drainage, and erect houses on each farm. Wlien the estates are ready for settlement, the small farms, -with the houses erected on them, are sold on long terms, sixty-six annual payments covering principal and interest. These an- nual payments are less than was formerly charged for rent. It was the pleasure of the writer to ride about three old estates — thirty thousand acres in all — of the most beautiful agricultural land.s one could imagine. One of these had been divided and settled seven years before, the second two years before, and the third was being divided at the time of the visit. On the first were living between two hundred and three hundred families in neat cottages surrounded by well-kept and well- cultivated farms bearing all the marks of an industrious, prosperous, and happy people. The contrast between the condition of these people and those in the congested districts not over a dozen miles away was more marked than that between the best white people of North Carolina and the poorest negroes. The second movement was the establishment of the Irish Agricultural Organization Society, the I. A. O. S. as it is usually called. In 1889 Sir Horace Plunket and a few other Irishmen saw that Ireland must organize her agricultural people in order that her agricultural products could compete successfully in the English market with the agricultural products of such European countries as Denmark, where the farmers were organized, and those of North and South America, and other far away countries brought close by cheap transportation. Aft«r five years of educational campaigning, the I. A. O. S. was formed to assist in the formation of farmers' organizations for buying and selling, and for bor- rowing money. In the first ten years of its existence, over four hundred organizations were formed. By 1914 there were approximately twice as many. All do not attempt to do the same work. Some are buying and selling organizations only, buying at whole-sale in quantities the things needed on the farms of their members and selling, in large lots without the assistance of middlemen, carefully sorted and packed agricultural products such as butter, eggs, poultry, bacon, ham, honey, etc. Many are creamery associations, owning and operating creameries making a Methods in Teaching Agriculture 3 teaching has been, to say the least, not uniform in its character. One school will be emphasizing one line of the work while another school emphasizes a different line. The text-books adopted have often been poor and indefinite in their subject matter. The instructors in agri- culture have sometimes given a false impression regarding their work because they themselves are not as fully cultured as they should be along the lines of good English, good methods of presentation and system in their work. They manage to entertain their students well and, perhaps, their actual instruction in the subject-matter itself is entirely sound. To properly get credit for their work, they should have true culture not only along agricultural lines, but along all lines. The teacher of agri- culture in the high school must be as well trained and express himself as well as the teacher of English. He must have his mathematics at his finger tips as accurately as the teacher of that branch. He should be as neat in his person and as well dressed as any member of the high school faculty. When such qualities are found in agricultural teachers the courses themselves will be found to appeal more readily to the college authorities. A great danger exists in this wide breach between colleges and high schools. The people nearest the high schools are clamoring for more of the modem instruction in them. The work is coming on rapidly and even more rapidly than we are able to prepare good teachers for the work. Some universities, and, indeed, most of the old-line colleges, are falling far behind in this movement. They still insist that all the units for entrance and advance credit be along the old lines. What is to be the result ? We can see it coming everywhere. The high school will be the finishing school. Many high schools will add one or two more years and credit the students with the work they have taken in the first four years. Junior colleges are springing up and taking the high school graduates where they find them, and crediting them with the work they have actually done along any good lines. In many cases high school students apply for admission to colleges and find they are "conditioned" because of not having enough of the old-line work. They enter with these "conditions" and a large per cent drop out at the end of one or two years. The breach is being mended by a number of liberal colleges and uni- versities, and, perhaps, others will fall into line in this regard. Entrance requirements are interpreted liberally and credit is given either on the actual time basis for crediting of high school work, or a certain definite multiple for the vocational courses is fixed by the University. Vieivpoint of Agriculhiral Instructors. Have you ever visited a high school where agriculture is taught and foimd the instructor in doubt regarding the creditability of his own work? Well, such an attitude of modesty may be commendable, but modesty should only go so far as the personal factor is involved, and should not extend to the subject-matter 4 The Training School Qiarterly itself. If the instructor in agriculture is not positive that his subject- matter has true cultural value, and that it should be credited towards graduation and towards admission to college, then why should we expect others to step in and offer such credit? We must have first a body of agricultural instructors throughout the country who have faith in the subject, who know its culture and can prove that its value, in this regard at least, equal any other high school subjects. They must have faith in the soundness of its teachings. Yea, they should be even enthusiastic in these regards. Projjer enthusiasm, well backed by sound and thorough teaching will help wonderfully in securing proper credit for agricultural courses. Wherein the CuHure Lies. Let us see along M'hat lines agriculture offers true culture to students pursuing it as a high school study, 1. Interest is maintained. There is real culture in true interest, and because of true interest in a subject the student gains more of all elements in that subject when pursuing it. If culture is one of the elements, then he gains more culture because of more interest. The reason that agriculture is an interesting subject is found along several lines. Its newness appeals to some. The fact that it deals with live things — animals, plants and things familiar to us — makes the students like it better. Its practical value in teaching things that we want to know and its economic relation to earning a livelihood help to keep up an interest in the minds of many. 2. "Agriculture is the livest subject in the educational world today." A really dead subject cannot offer much culture. At least such culture is not the kind for which Ave are striving. 3. Real art and applied art are closely associated with agricultural studies. All will admit the cultural value of painting, drawing and the study of the fine arts. In landscape gardening and floriculture, we find these arts not only deeply studied, but actually applied to the soil. The plants, including trees, shrubs, vines and flowers, and the proper placing of these carefully, form the very best cultural training. To put a daub of paint in the right place requires no more culture than to put a tree or a shrub in the right place. Relationships with surroundings are as deeply studied and as well or better Avrought. True expression of cultural value is found in a number of agricultural subjects. When a boy studies the harmonious blending of lines of a typical animal, or in selecting and culling a flock of laying hetis, studies the forms and lines in their rela- tionship to each other, he is applying the training about which the student of art merely theorizes. 4. Mental action is called for more in the pursuit of this subject than in mathematics, language, history, or even in literature itself. Hun- dreds of lessons require the student to exercise mental activity of his own in addition to following the mental channels of instructors, authors, and predecessors even of former times. Isn't there as much mental Methods in Teaching Agriculture 5 action in laying out an orchard by the three methods — quadrangle, quincunx, and hexagonal — as in giving the principal parts of a Latin verb and showing their uses ? Isn't there as much training in calculat- ing the cost of a drainage project as in learning how to demonstrate the binomial theorem? 5. Agriculture trains the memory as well as other high school sub- jects. The student of agriculture needs many facts at his tongue's end. He has so many of these facts which he must apply and he almost uncon- sciously remembers the facts because of the need for remembering them. In calculating the yields of certain fields, he uses certain tables which the student of mathematics learns merely as a culture in themselves. He makes use of the classification of insects when he is trying to combat them. The student of biology considers the classification an end in itself, while the student of agriculture does not stop here, but finds an application for the knowledge and is a long step ahead of the biology student. In applying remedies for insects and plant diseases he is another long step ahead of the student of chemistry, for he has the knowl- edge of the chemist and is making use of it. Even in simpler lines of agriculture study the memory is used in establishing rotation courses, planning field practices, formulating schedules of farm operations, and in numerous other lessons. 6. Probably in no other subject is reasoning from cause to effect more highly developed than in such a practical subject as agriculture. The logician deals with simple abstract premises, and reasons by i-ules laid down for him, reaching conclusions which follow those rules. Is such training of more cultural value than to reason why a dust mulch holds moisture when it applies the principles and properties of capillarity, porosity, film movement, evaporation, and percolation? True agriciil- tural teaching requires the student to give reasons for things. Eote teaching or rule teaching is not good teaching in such a subject as this. Always the application of sciences to practice requires great mental activity and the soundest reasoning. Ask a high school student in agriculture how a glass over the hot-bed aids in the heating of the bed, and you will usually get a far better answer than from the student of physics, but if the latter student has the principle as well learned he cannot always apply it. Here, again, we find the agricultural student has the principles as well as the student of another subject, and, in addition, finds an application for the principle. Take the case of pro- ducing a balanced ration for dairy cows. The student is dealing with organic chemistry. He knows what elements in the feed cause certain results in the animals' production. He knows their physiological effects on the animal. Here he is a long step ahead of the mere student of chemistry and physiology because he has their knowledge, and also the application of the knowledge. 7. Application of Knowledge is of Cultural Value. The student is a 6 The Tkaining StiiooL Quarterly better botanist because be can apply tbc knowledge of plants instead of attempting to bold tbat knowledge in an abstract fonu. Tbe average bigb scbool student in botany may study sometbing of tbe legume family of plants, for example, but our student goes far beyond tliis and knows tbe feeding values of tbose plants, tbeir agricultural benefits as a wbole, and tbeir effect upon tbe world-wide problem of soil maintenance and food production. He sees bow tbis family of ])lants is used to maintain tbe soil to solve tbe starvation problem of animals and man, to save expenditure of millions of dollars for commercial fertilizers, tbe supplies of wbicb are rapidly being exbausted. In like manner we migbt go into details regarding tbe application of tbe lessons in zoology to tbe farm practices themselves. Bacteriology finds its application in dairy prac- tice; tbe control of plant and animal diseases and in tbe sanitation of tbe farm bome. Cbemistry is studied by tbe agricultural student so tbat be may be able to apply it to spraying, fertilizing, feeding, treatment of animal diseases and in otber ways. He studies tbe principles of pbysics and mechanics so tbat be can better manage bis machinery, better drain his fields, solve his water supply problems and install irriga- tion projects. 8. The student of agriculture is often a better student of history than otber high scbool students. He learns the history of the ancients in their management of grains, alfalfa, and soil management, and applies the lessons gained from that knowledge to present-day practices. Such his- tory has a tangible side and is more easily remembered than abstract facts which have little relation to our lives of today. 9. The student of mathematics never gets so far as to apply his mathe- matics to land drainage, irrigation, water supply for the farmstead, calculating ingredients for home-made mixtures of fertilizers, the calcu- lation of balanced rations, different lines of feed supply for a year's feeding of a number of farm stock. We see here that the agricultural student goes a step further than the mathematical student in each of these lines. In going over these concrete examples, no effort has been made by the writer to make them complete or to cover the whole field of agriculture. There are hundreds of illustrations tbat are just as valuable as the ones here selected. We are compelled to admit that many have been called upon to teach agriculture because they knew something about farm practices, but they bad taken no course leading to the teaching of tbe subject. We must not then be too severe upon tbe critics who have received tbeir impressions from the work of such instructors. Some few of these have been more or less successful, but many of them have been terrible failures when viewed from the standpoint of creditable work. If this matter is viewed from the standpoint of entrance committees of the colleges, we can hardly blame them for discrediting work done in Methods in Teaching Agriculture 7 agriculture by high school students. A great change in this regard is bound to come, as teachers become better trained in methods of handling the subject. We may soon hail the day when colleges will give credit for the work done in agriculture in high schools where the instructor has had special training in both method and subject-matter. The literature of the subject has developed rapidly in the last decade. A number of books have appeared which aid teachers in properly pre- senting the subject to their students, but there is yet far too little which shows just how to correlate the practical side of practice and laboratory method with the rest of the subject. Too much is still given in the form of lectures and cla.ss-room cramming. We must learn to give proper training and cultural work through the more tangible forms of instruc- tion. Grasshopper Schoolteachers One fundamental difficulty limits the value of these and all other good things in common school education in North Carolina : the plague of school teachers who swarm into and out of the school districts of every county every year, very much like a plague of Kansas grasshoppers. Recently we found one county in which two-thirds of the country schools are being taught by brand new teachers, and another in which, three-fourths of the country schools have changed teachers since last year.. This kaleidoscopic change of teachers is a chronic affliction in every State of the Union. It reduces to a minimum the value of every dollar jspent in public education. How can country schools of permanent and increasing influence grow out of a condition like this? Such wholesale changes would bankrupt a cotton mill anywhere in a season or two, or any other business whatsoever. And it spells bankruptcy for our dreams and plans of public education in this and every other State. It is a practical problem that ought to be solved, and solved speedily. — The University News Letter. Educating for Farm Life Claiiknce Poe, Editor The Progremrifc Farmer, Ralpigh. N. C. TAM glad to know that the Tuaixixc; School Quarterly is prepar- ing to give especial attention to teaching agriculture and country- life subjects in country schools. I still remember how, in the little country school I attended, a desk-mate came to me one day and said that he was not going to school any more, and when I asked bim why, answered that it "wasn't any use, because be was going to be a farmer." And there was a tragedy for you — a boy who had come to the school with the hope that it would give meaning and richness and color to his life, going back to his work hopeless of the help that should have been hi^, going back to work which ignorance was to make a drudgery, but which science and practical education should have glorified into a joyous art. Multiply this case not by thousands, but by millions and you have some conception of the seriousness of the problem that confronts us. II. Our whole educational .system has been made by city people for city people, and the country school finds it second-hand, ill-fitting, and unat- tractive, a half-lifeless parasite. The school has not taken hold of farm life. Plants, soils, animals, insects, flower.3, the weather, the forests and the sky — from all these things it has stood apart, while it has babbled of subjects unfamiliar and uninteresting to the country-bred child. All rural education has been hacked and hewed to fit the Procrustean bed of the city model. Several years ago I heard Dr. John Graham Brooks, of Massachusetts, speaking at the Southerii Educational Conference in Winston-Salem, declare of the average public school : "Its arithmetic, its geography, its penmanship, its bookkeeping, and its reading-book appeal to the imagination of the farmer's child are still domi- nated by clerk and trading point of view. As one listens to the teaching, it i? as if the one object were to create discontent with the country life, to make every bright child hate his surroundings. The instructions seems to assume the failure of the farm life. The inexhaustible charm and resource of the country have no part in this teaching." And this indictment is hardly too severe. Our text-books have not suggested to the farmer's child the possibilities of science and training in agricultural work. On the contrary, the natural and logical inference Educating for Farm Life 9 from our geaeral scHem'e of rural instruction has been that education is not indispensable to the farmer, but is intended chiefly for the commer- cial and professional classes. In your spelling book, for instance, it has been easy to find commercial and city words — dividends, stocks, interest, accounts, percentages, balance, etc., etc., but where have you found such fundamental agricultural terms as nitrogen, potash, protein, or even such common farm words as clevis, single-tree, mattock, etc. ? In your arith- metic, moreover, you will find all about foreign exchange and commis- sions and bank discount and British money, and latitude and longitude and the metric system of weights and measures, but until quite recently never a word about how to calculate a feeding ration for cows, or a fertilizer formula from certain quantities of potash, phosphoric acid, and nitrogen, and even now such problems appear only in a "supple- ment," I believe. Is it not high time to say that we will, if necessary, let the farm boy learn less about far-away Australia and Kamchatka, but anyhow let him learn more about the soil that he walks over and plows in every day of his life ? The farmer girl, too, must learn of food values, of the chemistry of cooking, of hygiene, and of sanitation. Domestic science for the girls must go side by side with agriculture for the boys. III. ISTot only would I plead for a new viewpoint in our text-books and in our whole curriculum of the schools, but I believe also in teaching the elements of agricultural science in the rural schools. There is no reason either for saying that the child will not be benefited or that the average teacher cannot teach the book. As has been well said, the average teacher, if she has studied the text-book properly, probably knows a great deal more of the "knowable, teachable things" about agriculture than of the "knowable^ teachable things" about history, geography or physiology — subjects which she regards herself as thor- oughly competent to handle. The assumption that a woman cannot teach the elements of agricul- ture — not farming, mind you, hut simply the scientific truths that have practical application in farming — ^unless she has been a field hand is absurd. You don't need to be a centenarian and a soldier in order to teach history; it is not required that a teacher travel around the world before teaching geography; she need not have written a book before teaching grammar ; she need not have robbed graves and dissected corpses before teaching physiology. Why argue, then, that she must have broken steers and stemmed tobacco before teaching the scientific tniths about soil chemistry and plant physiology that have practical application in the business of farming? You don't have to know how to hitch a mule to a plow in order to teach why it doesn't pay to plow deep and cut the corn roots in two at laying-by time; you need not know how to run a guano distributor in order to teach the effects of potash, phosphoric acid, 10 The Training School Qlaktekly and nitrogen in plant growth; you lU'ed not know how to cure cowpea hay to teach how nitrogen gathered hy the cowpeas will enrich the land ; you need not know how to shuck corn to teach which type of ear has been found to be best for corn production ; you need not even have milked cows in order to teach that the Babcock test will show which dairy cows are paying and which are not; nor need you have butchered steers in order to tell that with a Jersey cow and a Polled Angus, the Jersey is better for the dairy and the Angus for beef. IV. The great need now is to develop a system of education that will carry inspiration and richness and color into the daily tasks of the great masses of our people. Nor need we be disturbed by those who say that in training for work and for efficiency, the schools will become less useful in building character or in developing genuine culture. There is just as much culture and character-training in learning how to calculate a fertilizer formula as there is in learning how to calculate latitude and longitude, just as much culture in learning the food values of the variou? vegetables as there is in learning to parse French sentences, just as much culture in learning how to fight the bacterial invaders of one's own body as in learning how some Roman emperor repelled martial invaders two thousand years ago. The idea that character and culture cannot be found in anything that has to do with sweat and homy hands, with the hiss of steam, the ^raoke of factories, and the smell of plowed ground — this is an inheritance from the dudes, fops and perfumed dandies of royal courts that we have no more use for in North Carolina than we have for powdered queues, gold snuffboxes and velvet knee- breeches. The trouble is, as Dr. Henry F. Cope says, that our public schools have been organized to get all the children ready for college, whereas "less than one per cent of the pupils reach college and less than three per cent the high school." Many a town, if it should examine the teach- ing in its higher grades, would discover, as did Newton, Mass., last year, that of every dollar expended, one-third went for foreign languages : For Latin 15 cents French 11 cents German G cents Greek 1 cent — 33 cents in every dollar for foreign languages, while a half cent in each dollar went for shopwork and mechanical drawing — the only thing of an industrial character for boys — and less than half a cent for domestic science for girls. And all this, despite the fact pointed out by Dr. Cope that the so-called language students "only get language-drill from the classics; they do not get the classics; they get tedious mental gymnastics." And this opinion is abundantly reinforced by that eminent scholar and Educating for Farm Life 11 student, Viscount Bryce, who, in his new volume_, "University and Histor- ical Addresses," refers to this excessive emphasis on languages and says : "More than a half of the boys in schools and under-graduates in colleges who may be taught Latin, and five-sixths of those who may be taught Greek, will not get far enough to enjoy the literature and give it a permanent hold on their minds." We must make over our whole educational system. Education, ac- cording to a fine definition I once had from Governor Mann, of Virginia, is "training for the mastery of environment." We must make our schools train for work, therefore — for constructive, productive, creative enterprise, without which we cannot build up a great Commonwealth or a great civilization; we must train for industrial mastery, and we must give an acquaintance with Nature and with poets and sages and dreamers so that one may find joy in one's physical and intellectual environment. And this last sentence reminds me to say that a few days after Secre- tary of Agriculture Houston went into office, I called on him, and in discussing the needs of our rural people, he used one sentence I have never forgotten: "The farmer has a right to a joyous existence." Here was struck what was virtually a new note among agricultural officials of the country. Plenty of leaders have said that the farmer should have a more profitable industry, a more efficient business, a more dominant political influence; but the idea of going further and giving the farmer a zest and passion for country things and for the beauties of country life — this has not been stressed as it should be. And the re- sponsibility must rest in great measure upon our educators, upon those who shape the teaching in our country schools. Sometimes, when we plead for more emphasis on agriculture and domestic science in the schools, someone answers : "Oh, you are inter- ested only in peeing people make more money. You are commercial. You would sacrifice culture for cash !" But that is not our spirit at all. We are anxious not only to see these practical studies in every country school, but we are interested in developing a genuine rural culture — not a parasitic urban culture acquired for purposes of ostentation, but a genuine culture which will open the eyes of the rural population to the beauty and glory that surround them, and which will enrich life and groAv in strength and vitality with the passing years. Said a friend of mine one day : "I was out in the woods this morning and saw a beautifully colored bird, one that I had seen one or two times before during my period of memory. I did not know what its name was; do not know yet, although I am going to try to find out. To find it out I shall have to go to my bird books. I know no one about here who knows more about birds than I do, and my ignorance is a constant source of shame to myself. 12 The Training School Qi akterly "I fiiul lots of llowers. too, and some trees, that I cannot place. I have spent a lot of time with handbooks trying to place some interesting new plant, and then found out later that I had placed it wrong. Most country people are just as Ignorant of these things as I am." How much better, be went on to say, would it have been if the country school ho attended had taught him these things instead of teaching him the capital of Afghanistan, the chief rivers of New Zealand, or the French system of weights and measures. And hero an experience of my own comes to mind. When I was a boy in the country, I came across a battered old astronomy, part of the leaves and all of the maps missing. Nevertheless, with the aid of the descriptive pictures I located constellation after constellation, fixed star after star, while the story of the wonders of God Almighty's universe, its planets and suns and systems, filled my imagination, broadened my vision, and stimulated my thinking as no mechanical language-drill could ever have done. And while I have wholly forgotten the little I learned of Latin and Greek, it is still a pleasure when I go out at night to find myself under the light of friendly stars, and to recognize the same ancient guardians of the sky that looked down on Job when the Lord answered him from the whirlwind : "Canst thou bind the sweet influences of the Pleiades or loose the bands of Orion? Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his season, or canst thou guide Arcturus with his sons?" "When Vega, with her twin attendants, glitters above me in the summer evenings, or in winter red Aldebaran glows like a ruby in "the rainy Hyades," my soul lifts with a knowledge of their sublimity and of the illimitableness of the universe of which I am a part. Let us see to it, then, that agriculture is taught in the schools, and let us see to it also that unlike Markham's "Man with the Hoe," the country- man of the future is no longer indifferent to the beauties of nature — "the swing of Pleiades, the rift of dawn, the reddening of the rose." Rather may the time soon come when with agriculture ennobled as a science, enriched as a business, and beautified as a life, the typical farmer of the South may have indeed "a joyous existence," and echo the beautiful sentiment of John Burroughs: "I have loved to feel the grass under my feet and the running streams by my side. The hum of the wind in the tree tops has always been music to me, and the face of the fields has often comforted me more than the faces of men. I am in love with this world because by my constitution I have nestled lovingly in it. It has been home. It has been my point of lookout into the universe. I have not bruised myself against it, nor tried to use it ignobly. I have tilled the soil; I have gathered its harvests. I have waited upon its seasons, and have always reaped what I have sown. While I delved I did not lose sight of the sky overhead. While I gathered bread and meat for my body, I did not neglect to gather its bread and meat for my soul. I have climbed its mountains, roamed its forests, felt the sting of its frosts, the oppression of its heats, the drench of its rains, the fury of its winds, and always have beauty and joy waited upon my goings and comings." The Students' Gardens at East Carolina Teachers' Trainin(; School, Agriculture in the Cary Farm Life School J. S. HOWAKI). C"WO years ago there were added to the Cary Public High School the departments of Agriculture and Home Economics. These two departments constitute the Cary Farm-Life School. It is the purpose of the school to train boys and girls to be more efficient farmers and home builders, to make of them better citizens and to create within them a love for and an understanding of the wonders of nature. In the past our schools have been molded to fit the ten per cent who intend entering the professions while the ninety per cent who remain in the country to dig their living from the soil have been disregarded. The average farmer boy knows very little about soil, plants, and animals; the three great sources of wealth. As he goes around the farm he sees nothing but unreasoning work day after day. , There is no wonder that so many of our boys leave the country when they have not been taught to know anything about the things that they have to work with. There must be something wrong with any educational system that does not provide for the training of country boys and girls for their life work. Our rural communities need and have a right to demand a good, practi- cal, scientific training in agriculture. The country boy needs and has a right to demand as good training for his life work as his brother who enters one of the professions. It was to meet this obvious need that farm- life schools have been established in the various counties of the State. In the farm-life schools the agricultural subjects are not taught to the exclusion of the literary subjects. The student in agriculture is not deprived of the literary training that is so essential to the making of a well-rounded man and that which will add so much to his happiness in after life. The only change that ha^ been' made in the old system is the substitution of the agricultural subjects for Latin. Briefly stated, the Cary Farm-Life School offers the following course in agriculture, along with the regular literary work : The work in the classroom for the first year is devoted largely to the study of the general principles of agriculture which serves as a founda- tion for the three following years. The laboratory work of this year is given over to manual training. In the shop the students are taught the use of tools and are required to construct such things a3 are needed around the farm and farm home. In the second year the students take up the study of field crops, fruit growing and vegetable gardening. In the subject of field crops the student learns the different soils, fertilizers, systems of cultivation and rotation that are best adapted to various crops and the varieties of these 14 The Traixino School Quabtekly crops that are best suited to different soils and climates. He also re- ceives practical training in seed selection and seed testing. In fruit growing the student is taught the best location for orchards, how to set trees properly, budding and grafting, the proper methods of pruning and the best spray materials to use for the various insects and diseases. Instruction is also given in the grading, packing and marketing of fruit. The school has a young orchard on the school farm containing a number of varieties of peaches, apples, pears, plums, cherries and grapes. This orchard was set by the students and it is a part of their class work to prune and spray the trees. In vegetable gardening the students con- struct hotbed frames and sash for the starting of early plants for the farm garden. They begin planting seeds in the hotbed in January and thereby are able to start their garden six to eight weeks earlier than they could in the open. Each student has his individual garden on the school farm and is required to plan, plant, and cultivate it for himself. Here he becomes familiar with all the vegetables that should be grown on the farm. The third year i.s devoted to the study of live stock. Here the student learns the different types and breeds of farm animals and their characteristics. He also receives practical training in the feeding of farm animals, livestock judging, dairying, bi-eeding, and poultry raising. The fourth year is given to the study of soils, farm management and rural economics. Under the subject of soils the student learns the various soil types and their treatment, the proper laying of terraces and the best methods of drainage. In farm management the students are taught to apply business methods to farming. Rural economics is devoted largely to the study of how to save what is made on the farm. Cooperation and the problems of marketing find a prominent place in this course. In addition to the work done at the school, the teachers of agriculture and home economics hold demonstrations on Friday afternoons out in the rural communities. The work for the past year has been devoted to the home orchard and home garden. It has been our aim to induce the farmers to grow more fruit and vegetables of a superior quality and to show them how to care for their orchards and gardens more intelligently. The Gary Farm Life School is doing a great service for the boys of Wake County by placing within their reach a scientific and practical training in agriculture. The school is not satisfied to train men to produce more grain to the acre, or more pounds of meat from a balanced ration, but the students are being shown how to become leaders in their communities; how they may make agriculture a fine progressive art which in the future shall provide a more stable and satisfactory basis for thrifty, intelligent, refined and happy rural communities. Approaching Agriculture Through the Small Garden Herbert E. Austin. TT was the sweetest sound I ever heard!" "I never realized what rain meant before !" "I now know how father feels when he says, 'The sound of that rain was like music !' " These were some remarks overheard in the Agriculture class one morn- ing in late May after a period of drought. The pupils' gardens had been carefully prepared. A deep personal interest in each garden had developed. The drought had become a personal matter. "My plants" were in danger. The pupils were seeing things and feeling things from father's viewpoint. To thus be brought into sympathetic and intelligent relationship with the problems and life of home is no small matter. It is one of the values resulting from the right teaching of agriculture in our elementary and high schools. To connect the boys and girls up with the community interests, bring them into sympathy with them, make them intelligent with reference to the problems to be solved in the every-day occupations, make them conscious of the laws and force of Nature which are theirs to use and obey if they are to succeed, is the function of elementary agriculture. Before there is a will to do, or to question how, there must be a desire. Before there is the desire, there must arise in consciousness the feeling of personal value to the individual. The situation must always be real and personal. There can be no other method of suc- cessful approach in the teaching of agriculture in our elementary schools. Eight here is found the secret of the worthwhileness of the corn clubs, tomato clubs, poultry clubs and pig clubs in our State. The boy and girl are working with realities. Elementary agriculture ap- proached from any other point of view or method will be a failure; it will be bookish, dead, and tends to develop a lack of sympathy and appreciation for the country and farm. Because of our short school term and other unfavorable conditions existing about most of our public schools, the school garden is not prac- ticable. The elements of failure and disaster are present in too great a degree. The spirit of ''What's the use?" must not be permitted to even suggest itself. For these reasons, and to take the greatest possible advantage of the "my" factor, the elementary agriculture Avork should grow out of and be centered about some home project that is being carried out at the time by each member of the class at home. 16 The Training School Quarterly We make the mistake of trying to cover the whole field of general agriculture in one term or one year. In trying to teach everything we usually succeed in teaching nothing. A few things well learned and put into practice are worth more than a whole book full not learned or half learned and not carried into practice. So it will be much better to have the work center about plants one year and animals the following year. This year a small home vegetable garden could be made to furnish the interest and problems with reference to plant growing. Next year poultry could be made the center of interest and work and through them the pupil made familiar with the essential principles of animal hus- bandry. This year at the Ti-aining School we are getting our problems in Agriculture from the home vegetable garden. The senior students work in groups of two. Small gardens ten feet by twenty feet have been laid out and planted by them, as shown in the pictures. The vegetables selected for our first planting this year and occupying the rows, begin- ning with the left, are one row Crimson Giant and White Icicle radishes, two rows Fordhook Fancy Mustard, one row May King and Early Curled Simpson lettuce, one row Purple Top Strop-leaved Turnips, one row Extra Early Purple Top Milan Turnips, one row Dark Stinson Beets, one row Improved Blood Beet, one row Kohl Rabi, one row onion sets, two rows Burpee's Stringless Green Pod Beans, one row Chalk's Early Jewel Tomatoes, and one row Ruby King Sweet Peppers. As these mature they will be rej^laced by other kinds and varieties best adapted to the later season, and an effort made to keep this garden producing something every day in the year. With the exception of the disking, plowing and harrowing of the ground before it is handed over to the students, all the work of laying off the gardens, preparing the soil, planting the seeds, and caring for the plants is done by the pupils themselves. They are held responsible for results. The "what" to be done is carefully explained to them. Their practice and rules are based upon and illustrate Knapp's Funda- mental Principles of Agriculture for Southern Fanners. As each ques- tion arises, the science fact and the laws of nature which explain the "why" of the thing to be done or not done is introduced and made realities through simple oxporiuipnts, and their vital relation to the problem carefully shown. Agriculture is nothing more than conscious and intelligent cooperation with nature and her forces. My Blue and Gold Garden Jaques Busbee. CHE spring garden is now uppermost in the thoughts of all who have even a square yard of earth to spade. Perhaps an account of how I planted a small garden only thirty feet square will be of interest, as I realize a greater display of flowers for house decoration throughout the season than my neighbors do with four times that garden space. Three points were considered : first, what colors were most harmonious in the house; second, what should be the arrangement and color scheme of the garden itself; and last, but by no means least, what would grow best and bloom through our long hot summer. My house, in general effect, is Mission, with a color scheme of cream walls, orange buff window shades, brown woodwork and solid green rugs. In each room there is just one accent of vivid blue ; in the hall a blue Venetian glass vase; in the library an Audubon print of blue jays; in the dining-room a painting of blue surf and sea, and so on. First of all I find that red and pink flowers are simply atrocious in the house, except on the dining table under artificial light. Therefore, only one corner of the garden is given over to red and pink roses, the rest of the space is filled with yellows and blues. Nearly half the garden is planted in the yellow composites — Gaillardias, Heleniums, Helianthus, Eudbeckia, Chrysanthemums, and Coreopsis. Also, I have Escholschia, Snapdragon, Hemerocallis, Yellow Zinnias and Marigolds and yellow Spanish Iris and Narcissus. This gives a succession of yellow flowers from earliest spring until long after frost. Narcissus bloom here in March, followed by Escholscias, Coreopsis, Gaillardias, Eudbeckia Eul- gida, Heleniums, Helianthus (perennial sunflowers). Marigolds, and Zinnias, the Chrysanthemums prolonging the season far into November. All of these yellow, bronze yellow and copper yellow flowers are exquisite with the various backgrounds the house affords, repeating and accenting the color scheme of the rooms. On the other hand, the blue half of the garden represents a collection of blue flowers collected after years of trying out the plants advertised by flori.sts as "Blue." Flower catalogs list as ''Blue" flowers in every conceivable shade of purple and even colors that any milliner would call magenta. True blue is the scarcest color in all nature. Yet I have over a dozen varieties of flowers that are very close to pure cobalt blue, and these flowers, when placed indoors, lend a wonderful color contrast to the warm soft tones of the house. Unfortunately our climate prevents the growing of Delphiniums, the most splendid of all hardy blue flowers. But I have com flowers, four 2 18 TiiK Tkainincj School Quarterly varieties of blue salvia (Farinacea, Patens, Pitcheri, Uliginosum), Linum, Pliunbago, Ancliusa, Chicorcc, IpoiiKca Coerulea, Clitoria (the most womlcrl'iil blue of thcui all), ami wIk'u it comes to "blue" flowers that are violet and purple, the list suddenly swells to a goodly number — Platycodon, Campanula, Veronica, shrubby Clematis, Agapanthus (hardy with us), the beautiful perennial Scabiusa, the Kocky Mountain Aquil- egia, and any number of various species of Iris, ranging in color from the almost true blue of some of the Japanese Iris and the pale blue of the Pallida Dalmatica to the blue purples and deep royal purples of the Siberian Iris. Flowers which luxuriate in the moist cool Northern summer, I have sighed over longingly, but have wasted no time planting. Delphiniums are to me the unattainable. So is Lupine Polyphyllus and some of the Campanulas. But available species in the colors wanted are numerous enough to more than fill my small garden and I smile with content Avhen some visitor praises unconsciously my success by saying, "Coarse, com- mon flowers like Zinnias and Sunflowers look so different in your house. You arrange them so well." Dlt. C. O'll. J.AKilUNUllOUSE. Charles O'Hagan Laughinghouse [Pi-esident Medical Society of North Carolina | Mamie E. Jenkins. CHE highest honor the physicians of the State can bestow upon a fellow-physician is to make him the official head of the organiza- tion that binds them together in one body. The man the Medical Society of North Carolina chose to be their leader in the year 1916 is Charles O'Hagan Laughinghouse, a Greenville man, bred and born in the town and one of its foremost citizens. His ideal of a physician is not the professional man who works apart from others, isolating him- self and his work, practicing only for the sake of making a reputation for himself, but it is the physician who uses his profession as a means by which he can help build up his community, by bettering conditions in education and sanitation, by developing a higher type of man, by standing for higher ideals of citizenship. As a man's ideals so is the man, therefore. Dr. Laughinghouse is a citizen before he is a profes- sional man. He has been interested, and actively interested, in most of the public- spirited enterprises undertaken in his community during the past twenty years, whether they have been for the physical, the educational, or the industrial betterment of the town and county. He is one of the busiest men in the State. His regular day begins at seven o'clock in the morning and runs to one o'clock the next morning ; how long his irregular working day continues no one dares to guess. Genial, popular, big in body and heart, he moves swiftly from case to case, or from problem to problem, with an easy, unhurried air that gives an impression of reserve force. He is a man one would pick in a crowd because of his fine physique. He has a record that is already worthy to be placed by that of his illustrious grandfather, Dr. Charles O'Hagan. The mantle of the grandfather has truly fallen on the grandson. Dr. O'Hagan was once president of the Medical Society of North Carolina. For half a century he was identified with practically every enterprise in the town. It is easy to see where Dr. Laughinghouse got his ideal of a physician, for the grandfather was the living embodiment of that ideal. Dr. Laughinghouse returned . to his home town in 1893, with his diploma in medicine, after having spent three years at the University of Pennsylvania, and entered into partnership with his grandfather, in the meantime having stood the State examination and having received his license to practice medicine. There was no period of starvation, no waiting for the first patient, and no time had to be spent in gaining the confidence of the people. It was sufficient for the public to know that 20 The Training School Quarterly Dr. O'Hagan considered his young grandson worthy of sharing his work. Seven years of partnership with an experienced i)hysician was excellent apprenticeship for the young physician. Professionally he used the time to good advantage, not depending on the grandfather's reputation to carry him through. He realized that the time would come when he would have to carry on the practice alone. When the older man passed out, the work went on. For a few years Dr. Laughinghouse was in partnership with Dr. Moye, but the failing health of Dr. Moye required him to give up his practice, so the partnership was dissolved. Since then Dr. Laughinghouse has practiced alone. Dr. Laughinghouse has held many offices, and they have been not empty offices of honor, but those that have required work and special intellectual qualifications. In 1895, only two years after he was admitted to the profession in ISTorth Carolina, he was made essayist of the Medical Society. In 1896 he was made chairman of the section on surgery and anatomy in the same organization. In 1902, less than ten years after he bega7i practicing medicine, he was made a member of the State Board of examiners. He served on this board for six years, and was president for the last two years of this time. He has been a member of the State Board of Health since 1910. In 1902 he delivered an address before the Medical Society on "One of the State's Immediate Needs — Shown by Legislative History." This was printed and circulated throughout the State. Reprints of this were made later and copies are still in circulation. This set forth the needs for increased appropriations for the Department of Health. It was one of the important factors that aroused the legislators to a realization of the importance of this department. The appropriations have been greatly increased from time to time until this department has grown to be one of the most extensive and efficient departments in the State. At the time Dr. Laughinghouse wrote this article he was chairman of the section on "Medical Jurisprudence and State Legislation." He delivered the address at the laying of the cornerstone of Caswell Training School, the school for the feeble-minded, setting forth the purpose, the prospects, and the future of the institution. It was printed and scattered throughout the State; later reprints were sent out into other States, and dozens of invitations have come to him to address Legislatures, and various bodies which were interested, or which zealous advocates wished to interest, in the cause of the feeble-minded. On the grave-stone of one of the Laughinghouse forefathers at Bath is the inscription, "A revolutionary soldier who carried to his grave scars received while fighting for the independence of our country. He lived and died an honest man." This explains where Dr. Laughinghouse got his fighting qualities. He has been in many interesting fights. Perhaps he has achieved more fame because of his part in the campaign against Charles O'Hagan Laugiiinqhouse 21 tuberculosis tlian he has" in any other cause. He wrote an article, "Diag- nosis of Incipient Tuberculosis from the General Practitioner's Stand- point," which has been widely circulated. This is considered one of the most valuable contributions made to the cause by a general practitioner. Some years ago smallpox was raging everywhere in this section of the State. People were still doubting the efficacy of vaccination. One family in Pitt County had six cases of the disease, but this was the first outbreak of it in the county. Dr. Laugh in ghouse, determined to keep ahead of the disease, started out on a vaccinating campaign; for six weeks he went day and night, vaccinating throughout the county as he went. The smallpox excitement in Pitt County ended where it began, with those first six cases, and the surrounding counties had ap- palling records. He was instrumental in getting a bill passed by the State Legislature allowing towns and counties to build community hospitals. He made a survey of the poorhouses of the first congressional district, which con- vinced him that there was great waste in having a separate poorhouse for each county. He succeeded in convincing the Legislature of the same thing, and they passed a bill permitting the first district to have a community poorhouse, to take care of all the paupers of all the counties in the district. This has not, however, been built. Dr. Laughinghouse has been the official school physician of East Carolina Teachers Training School ever since its opening. The health record of the school has been well nigh marvelous. In the seven years there has never been a single death among students or faculty. There has never been an epidemic of any kind. All sorts and kinds of diseases have crept in, one at the time, but they have a way of coming at the end of vacations or week-end trips, souvenirs the students bring back from other places. Among these have been all the simple contagious diseases that everyone seems destined to have — measles, mumps, scarlet fever, whooping cough, chicken pox, and, in addition, smallpox (just one very light case) — yet not a single one of these has gone any further than the case with which it began. The infirmary at the Training School, with its excellent contagious ward, makes it possible to isolate completely any suspected cases. The preventive measures Dr. Laughinghouse has taken against diseases, and the corrective treatment for chronic troubles have been of untold value to the school. Many individual girls have been saved from future trouble. The first year of the school, soon after the opening, Dr. Stiles visited the school and gave the tests for hook-worm. New students have always been carefully watched for this disease. In November, 1913, Dr. Von Erzdorf, the great specialist in malaria, visited the school and gave the tests which proved satisfactorily and convincingly that there was much less malaria in the eastern part of the 22 The Training School Quarterly State than was usually believed. Dr. Laughinghouse thought that the school was the best place in which to make a systematic study of condi- tions because the students came from practically every county in the easteni section of the State, and the time that was best for the test was soon after they came from their homes in the fall. Every fall tests are given all of the students that have symptoms that indicate malaria and treatment follows when necessary. The result is that there is approxi- mately no malaria in the school. Each year, whenever there are rumors of smallpox in the air, there is a wholesale vaccination of all the new students that have not been vacci- nated in some time. While this is not compulsory the question is simply laid before the students and there is rarely ever a student that does not wish to be vaccinated. For two years, in the early fall, the problem of typhoid fever preven- tion has been stated to the girls, and they are given the opportunity to take the treatment for prevention. Practically every student has taken advantage of this opportunity. "Whenever a student has trouble requiring the attention of a specialist she is advised to consult one. The students are thoroughly examined and are kept in remarkably good physical condition. The improvement caused by regular habits and close supervision over their health is plainly in evidence as the year goes by; even the casual observer notices the improved physical condition of the students taken as a whole. Dr. Laughinghouse advocates the same preventive measures in regard to health in the community, both town and county, that he does in the school. He never loses an opportunity to inform the people along the lines of health. One evidence of this is that the people of Pitt County look on the typhoid treatment as a necessity. He dreamed of the time when Pitt County should have a whole-time health officer. He served for years as health officer and gave such service as conditions would permit. This made him realize that condi- tions should be bettered, that there should be health inspection in the schools, and that all of the many things that should be done could be done only by a man who had all of his time to give to the work. In the winter of 1915 a peculiar combination of circumstances made him feel that the psychological moment had arrived for the matter to be pressed home. The board of county commissioners was appealed to and the result was that the State Board of Health was authorized to find a man quali- fied for the place. The interests of Dr. Laughinghouse reach out beyond his profession. As was said in the beginning, he is a citizen first of all. His fighting powers have been used for the educational development of the town. He was one of the first to advocate bonds for the purpose of building a graded school. He canvassed the county from one end to the other when the question of the bond issue for the East Carolina Teachers Training School was the paramount issue before the people. Charles O'Hagan Laughinghouse 23 He was also one of- the fir.3t to agitate the bond issue for good roads. This was finally carried after an intensely interesting campaign. The industrial and commercial life of the town he has not only watched with great concern, but taken a hand and helped substantially many times. He was one of the original stockholders applying for a charter of the Greenville Knitting Mill, the Greenville Manufacturing Company, and the Greenville Building and Loan Association. He was one of the first to take stock in and help organize both the National Bank of Greenville and the Greenville Banking and Trust Company. He is now a director of the latter. Dr. Laughinghouse, with Higgs Brothers and D. W. Hardy, built the modern four-story office building in the heart of the town, known as the "National Bank Building." The Public Library of Greenville has rooms in this building which the owners are furnishing free of rent for one year. The name of Dr. Laughinghouse is among the charter members of the Carolina Club. He is now one of the directors of this club, and has been active in its development, helping to make it a real factor in the progress of the town. This man whom the doctors of JSTorth Carolina have chosen to honor is, on one side, descended from the pure old English stock that settled this eastern section of North Carolina. His forefathers over two hundred years ago settled at Bath, the oldest town in North Carolina, and helped build the most famous church in North Carolina, which is still standing. Without a break his LaiTghinghouse grandfathers have been landowners, and were slaveholders. A generation or two ago this immediate branch of the family moved into another part of Beaufort County, in the Chocowinity Township. The father of Dr. Laughinghouse, J. J. Laugh- inghouse, has been a prominent citizen of Greenville for many years. The mother of Dr. Laughinghouse was Miss Eliza O'Hagan, who was the daughter of Dr. Charles O'Hagan, for whom he was named. Dr. O'Hagan was born in Ireland, was educated in Belfast and lived there until after he was grown. He had a position in the Queen's survey and went throughout Ireland, Scotland, and England while in this work. He came to this country to teach, and because a college mate had told him that the South was a great place for school teachers he came South. He taught in Hookerton and Kinston before coming to Greenville, Avhere he finally settled. After teaching a while he read medicine and began practicing. He came to Greenville in 1850 and died in 1900. Dr. Laughinghouse was born in 1871. He attended Trinity High School, at Chocowinity, for some years, where he was under one of the most famous teachers of this section, Eev. Collin Hughes, D.D. He attended Horner School, at Oxford, for two years. He was a student in the University of North Carolina one year. The secondary schools then did not stop when a boy Avas prepared for college; therefore, when Dr. Laughinghouse entered the University he found his work scattered 24 The Training School Quarterly from Freshman through the Junior class. One of the things for which the University has to thank him for is his part iu the organization of the first glee cluh ever organized there. He and Messrs. Hunter Harris, George Butler, T. M. Lee, and Stephen Bragaw, were the first members. He left the University of North Carolina to attend the University of Pennsylvania. While there he was president of the John S. Ashurst Surgical Society. He received his medical degree in the year 1893. He took three months post graduate work at Johns Hopkins University in 1896. He was married to Miss Carrie Dail, of Snow Hill, on the tenth of June, 1896. They have three children, Helen, who is now seventeen years old, and is a student at St. Mary's School, in Raleigh ; Charles, sixteen years old, who is in the high school in Greenville, and Dail, fourteen years old, who is in the Greenville Graded School. In polities Dr. Laughinghouse is a Democrat. He sometimes says that when it comes to local politics he must be a mug^vump, for he always wants to see elected the man, regardless of the party to which he belongs, who will do most to better conditions in education and sanita- tion, the man Avho in every way will mean most to the community. Thus one can readily see that the man who has achieved so much for his community in a lifetime of forty-five years has merited the confi- dence of his professional coworkers. T. S Gathering Up the Fragments [Address delivered during the Better Babies Week in Greenville.] Charles O'Hagan Laughinghouse. DID you ever stop to think that progress comes through men? That lawyers are men and that all laws are made hy men? That all priests and preacher^ are men? That all religions were formu- lated by men ? That all books were written by men ? That all the justice we know is man's justice ? That the justice and mercy of God himself is man's conception of that justice and mercy, and that it changes as man changes? All love is man's love? All sympathy man's sympathy? All service man's service? All progress man's progress? There is nothing greater, grander, finer or nobler in this world than man. He is king of the world. God has made him so. Babies and children are men and women in the bud. Realizing this, we have Better Babies Week to gather up the fragments of child life so that nothing be lost in the making of men and women. In a material way we bend our energies to gathering up the fragments. For instance, in the past we made laws prohibiting the dumping of cotton seed into navigable streams. We are taking the seed, today, and using them to our profit. Hogs and cows do not grow on cotton stalks, nor do cotton blooms develop into olives. From cotton seed we get lard manufactured in Chicago, butter in Montana, and olive oil pressed in sunny Italy. Petroleum, lately a waste product, gives us, today, everything from axle grease to gasoline. The Standard Oil Company is giving due atten- tion to gathering up the fragments, and out of this they have gotten rich from the waste of a few years ago. Armour has applied this principle of the whole hog or none, and sells at a profit everything from ham down to the extract of the supra- renal gland. The modern saw mill uses its sawdust for fuel and modern invention is even converting sawdust into grain alcohol. The slow and wasteful methods of by-gone days are considered impos- sible and foolish to the farmer who is using chemistry and modern machinery mixed with brains, to furnish food for the world. The stagecoach is a memory. Railroads are everywhere, and the wastefulness of bad country roads is preached at every turn. We are reclaiming waste lands by drainage, by irrigation we are forcing the deserts to blossom like the rose, and the telephone and tele- graph has put the face of the earth on every man's desk. In a social way we are gathering up the fragments. The State exists 26 The Training School Quarterly for tlie individual, and the highest purpose of Better Babies Week is to fit the individual to exist and be fitted to exist for the State. The State compels for the preser\'ation of order and taxes for the public service. It fines and imprisons for crime, and for the sake of society it sometimes takes away all rights, even the right to live, when the individual so misuses his rights tluit his death, better than his life, pro- serves society. As civilization advances we are denying and voting down the doctrine of individual rights. We have long since learned that social safety depends upon this denial. We have come to know that the best government is that government which is detennined by the question of the greatest good to the greatest number. In fact, government today is an unconditional denial of individual rights to the extent, at least, of wiping out the duties to the individual except in so far as they appertain to the public good. Compulsory vaccination, while primarily for the individual, would not be laAv today except that in this way, and in this way only, can the State be protected against smallpox. A dairyman's coavs are his own, but in civilized communities he is not permitted to sell infected milk to endanger the health and life of his neighbor's children. A butcher's meat is his own, but in municipalities that are intelligently governed it cannot be placed on the market for human food if it is diseased, or unsafe or unfit to eat. A manufacturer's money is his own, but in civilized countries he is not permitted to use it for the purchase of the cheaper labor of the unde- veloped child, even though the child's parents are willing to sell. A man's child is his own, but in civilized countries he cannot waste its growth and health and life in hazardous and unhealthful labors. So it is that a man cannot waste his own child, or his neighbor's child, nor claim any right or power or property that hurts or hinders the aggregate development and safety of his community. On every hand, out of the mouths of frauds, ignorance, and politicians we hear enough of the rights of man. Let's hear more of their duties. To love our neighbor as ourself is but to see ourself in our neighbor, and to find our safety everlastingly involved in his welfare. From rights, then, to duties should be our slogan for Better Babies Week and for all time, for so leads the way to gathering up the fragments that bring per- manent wealth and permanent happiness. The fraternal orders, churches, and private citizens are furnishing and maintaining orphanages, not as mere charities or matters of senti- ment only. These places make men and Avomen. They make them, alas, far better than the average home. The deaf and dumb and blind are Gathering Up the Fragments 27 being taught to become self-sustaining members of society. The insane and epileptic are, in many cases, being restored to useful and happy lives. We are operating reformatories for young criminals, with the hope of educating criminal tendencies out of childhood. North Carolina has taken the lead in the South by establishing a Training School for the Feeble-Minded right here at our doors. We have come at last to the wonderful lighthouse of compulsory education. Think for a moment of the stupendous waste in an untrained, unedu- cated child. We are gathering up the fragments and preventing this as best we can by our public and graded schools, our colleges an^ universi- ties, our A. and M. College, our State ISFormal, and our East Carolina Teachers Training School. The medical inspection of school children is here and our efficient whole-time health officer in Pitt County is today rendering a service that money cannot measure. He is the constant teacher of child sanita- tion and hygiene. He is the guardian of the public's physical good. He is the Apostle of the Gospel, the teachings of which prevent physical, mental, and moral decay. He urges all men, and shows them how, to fortify the citizenship of this great country against disease and death. He is pressing the country's medical profession to the use of means other than drugs and lance with which to fight disease, and he is bringing this profession so fully to the comprehension of its individual and collective duty to public health that, forgetting things that are behind, the mem- bers of this profession are pressing forward on the stepping stones of their better selves to a finer conscience and the fulfillment of higher things. We would have you know that the world is growing better, but from wild grapes to grapes is a long, long journey. We may be on the Appian way, but we are not yet in Rome. With all our knowledge of men and things, with all our saving of waste through chemistry and business economy, with all our reclaiming of waste lands by drainage and irriga- tion we are failing, right here in Greenville, in giving the child its due in the material improvement and conservation that we are giving seed and hogs and land. We are neglecting playgrounds for our children, large and small. We are not giving them the advantage of scientific light and ventilation in our schools. Open air schools are replacing the old-time badly lighted, badly ventilated school. Do we give any attention to these things? Is there any suggestion of it in our new High School ? The United States, the State of iN'orth Carolina, and the county of Pitt, through its whole-time health officer, have told you, through the public press, through mass meetings, through addresses to your city fathers, that the big ditch just south of your Graded School is infected 28 The Tkaixino School Quarterly with malaria aud is a menace not only to your school children but to your city's citizenship. Where have you placed your High School? This ditch just south of your Graded School is just east of your High School, and running through a large residential section of our city, is opening its sides every spring to the growth of mosquitoes, enough to make your body of school children rotten with malaria. Your school superintendent will tell you that you lose more days by sickness from malaria among school children than from all things else combined. It is making a waste of your school money by making a sickly and an inefficient student body. Is it possible that you have eyes that see not and ears that hear not the things that have been told you by the United States Public Health Service, by the State Public Health Seiwice, and by your local Public Health Service, and by the physicians of your town? If it was making your chickens and horses and cows sick you'd stop it. You advocated one or two or three thousand dollars reward for the capture of Dave Evans, and thought it money well spent, and it was, perhaps. But that ditch, and the others in Greenville like it, will do more harm to Pitt County's citizenship in the year of our Lord 1916 than Dave Evans did or would have done, if he had killed two more men, I care not how good they are. O, the waste of life in its prime ! The slaughter of innocents in their mother's arms ! The untimely tears of broken, hopeless health and anxious hearts ! You can see the scars if you will visit your school and look upon your puny, pallid children. And you can count the scars if you will visit your cemetery which has made prematurely sad and sorrowful the beautiful face of Mother Earth. I told you in the beginning that my purpose was to plead that you gather up the fragments of child hygiene not of the body alone, but of the mind, morals, and environment. This brings me to the asking of a question concerning which all thoughtful men would enquire, and that is, "Are we building character in our children ?" Are we bending our children to the making of men and women as our forefathers did in former days? If not, we are raising luscious fruit that Avill neither keep nor nourish the world through the cold seasons that are to come. Are we putting a deep and enduring respect for law into our children's hearts? Are Ave inculcating them with the old-time regard for higher things? Are we saturating them with a reverence for God and State? By permitting them constantly to assert their individual right are we not putting them in the way of the prodigal son who spent his substance in riotous living and finally filled himself with the husks which the swine did eat ? If my son have no respect for my authority and the authority of the State ; if he reverence not God, and holy things ; if he have not faith and hope and love, and the desire for service abiding in him ; if he have not respect for others and respect for himself; if he have not character; Gathering Up the Fragments 29 no wealth, or knowledge, or training of his can show me that he is not a dangerous derelict without anchor, and I shall know that he will bow or break his father. If there be a lacking in moral fiber, if there be political graft in high places and low, if there be decadence of any kind, know you that these things originate largely from one common source; the source that needs to gather up the fragments more than any other source, the source that is the most baneful example of the assertion of private rights with the negation of duties, the most appalling source of social waste. I refer to the increasing laxity of family government. It used to be said that the parent controlled the child. Now it is commonly admitted that the child controls the parent. That the parent does not control is too grievously true. Parental authority in no sense depends upon the consent of the governed. It is inherent ; it is the one great duty which the parent has no right to disregard, for in doing so he is a culprit to himself, to his child, to his State, and to his God. The family is the indispensable social unit. Its purpose is the train- ing of children to orderly life and citizenship, and more and more the family is failing in its purpose. I must train my child in the way he should go for the child's sake and for society's sake. It is not a work which I have a right to do or not to do. It is my inalienable duty. I may not relinquish my work any more than the Creator of all things may abdicate His throne, for only in this way can the doing of judgment and justice come among men. The Puritan may have been unduly austere, but the Puritans made men and women. Patriot and demagogue rant about the rights of local self-government. Let them descant less upon the beauties of it to the multitude, but, as fathers and mothers, let them teach it to their children. Teach them obedience to constituted authority and obedience to self. For "He that ruleth his spirit is better than he who taketh a city." So may crime be lessened. So may juries look up to God and care well for the State. So will the company of insane grow less and the number of hysterical women and psychasthenic men become decreased. In the building of character the right attitude of the soul of man is the work of early years. IsTothing can take the place of the family. The schools are supplementary. And I pray you, O Schoolmaster, teach my child obedience and books, if you can — but if you can teach him no books, teach him obedience to you and control of himself. Teach him this form of local self-government, this most vital embryonic form of democracy. Therefore, my friends, those heads of Greenville families, fathers and mothers, who shall resume their rightful sway in legislating for child welfare and health, who shall discharge to themselves, their children, their State and to their God their full duty as parents, will have gathered up the fragments of all fragments, and will have done their duty at the source. And they, above all others, will have gained the true, the full, the God-like meaning of Better Babies Week. The Celebration of the Tercentenary of Shakespeare Co-operation in School Dramatics AxiCE Hkkuinu, '16. CUE Shakespeare tercentenary was celebrated at the Training School by a production of "A Midsummer Night's Dream," given by the Senior class. The class, in considering during their Junior year what to give, de- cided that a Shakespearean play would be the most appropriate and desirable type to give as the tercentenary fell this year. As a result, "A Midsummer Night's Dream" was selected. It was an undertaking Avhich required much planning to find out and decide of what the play, as a whole, should consist. These things had to be decided before practices might be begun : what version of the play to use; what choruses, if any; the kind of dances and how they might be worked out; Avhether an out-door performance should be given; and where should the costumes come from. When the time came for actual work on the play the problem of choos- ing the cast was of paramount importance. As it was impossible for every one to have an important part in the cast, and as there was much good material from which to choose, it was a problem which required both tact and good judgment. Finally the suggestion of having ''try outs" met with the approval of all, and a week was immediately set aside, during which they were to be held. As an aid to the girls in deciding what part they would try for a committee appointed or sug- gested several girls to try out for each part; each girl, however, Avas perfectly free to try for any part she might wish. The teachers of English and Singing, with the class adviser, Avere judges, and they chose those whom they considered most capable and best suited in appearance for the various parts. In this manner the best material in the class was given an opportunity of making the play a success. At first the practice was carried on in sections, the different scenes fitting into a schedule, thus interfering practically none with the regular work. In this manner the practices were carried on until Avithin about two weeks of the date, when everything was put together and the full rehearsals begun. In the meantime the class adviser, wdio coached the play, gave individual attention to members of the cast as it was needed. And in all the characters there was a marked growth in understanding and interpretation as the rehearsals progressed and they studied their parts with this ideal ever before them: "Above all, be natural, but not yourself. In this play you are another person, he that person in thought, word, find action." Scenes and Chakacters from "A Miusvmjier Night's Dream." Scenes froji "A Mii)Sum:mer Nuiin's Dueam. Shakespeare Teecentenaby Celebration 31 Altbougli every member of the class was not in the actual performance, every one had an important part, and felt the responsibility of making the play a success as partly hers. The realization of this responsibility enabled them to carry on the play successfully. The fairy parts of the play were taken by children from the four grades of the Model School, as each successive group of student teachers feel that the Model School belongs to them. The dances were interpreted from written instructions and taught these children by seniors, with the later approval and polishing over by a specialist in such dances. This specialist concentrated most of her attention on the solo dances. Never- theless, the actual work and the practical value of experience in the interpretation of the dances and the handling of young children came to the girls. The time and effort taken from the regular classwork and given to the play is considered well spent and of great practical and educational value to all who had any part in the production. The students in the work on "A Midsummer Night's Dream" demonstrated the value of amateur dramatics in connection with the departments of school work. A work sufficient unto itself has little value in a Normal School where the pro- fessional course must be completed in two years. The following departments were used to great advantage: Music, Domestic Art, Drawing, English, Mathematics, and History. Before the completion of the play, many opportunities were given the students for originality, perseverance, and exercise of creative powers. To show just how vitally and to what extent these various depart- ments were used in the planning and production of the play may be of value to others interested in amateur dramatics. Music. The three forms of music taught here were utilized in rendering the music required by the play. Especially good training was given in the choral work and solo singing. Mendelssohn's music written for the play was used exclusively, with the exception of that for the tree-hearts' dance. And all the dances and incantations were adapted to this par- ticular music. Domestic Arts. For weeks the sewing-room was in great demand from morning until night. There, with the invaluable help and suggestions of the sewing teacher, the costumes for all fairies, tree hearts, and for a few minor characters were planned and made. With these exceptions the cos- tumes were rented from a professional costumer. Those working in this department had to depend and trust largely to their own capability and resourcefulness, for instance, when it was impossible to get the desired 32 TitE Trainix(j School Qlautekly color for a certain costume, material was bought and dyed. Similar instances of ingenuity were shown again and again. Drawing. In this department every member of the class had valuable practical lessons in poster-making, which included enlarging by a scale, lettering, use of water-colors, and combination of colors. Under the supervision of the drawing teacher every girl was responsible for one poster. This responsibility was not imposed upon the girls, but was a unanimous de- cision, as the girls considered it the best way to get the desired number of posters. Being responsible for it did not necessarily mean that each individual had to make an entire poster alone, but that she was only held responsible for the production of one. There were combinations of services and talents; for instance, a girl very efficient in lettering might do that part on several posters while another equally talented in sketching or using the brush might spend her time in doing work of that kind,; thereby gaining more satisfactory results. The character of the posters aimed to bring out >^e characteristic, fairy-like phase of the play. Among material used as foundation were sketches from the Ben Greet edition of "A Midsummer Night's Dream" and the beautiful paintings from the scenes of the play by Arthur Rack- ham. For selling the tickets a diagram of the first floor had to be drawn. This afforded lessons in exactness and accuracy in drawing to a scale. These posters were sent to nearby towns and distributed about Green- ville as advertisements. Throughout all the advertising the merchants of Greenville were very accommodating, and especially was their kind- ness in allowing posters to be put in their windows appreciated. But for them the advertising might have proved much more difficult. English. All advertising, wording of handbills and programs was accomplished under the supervision of this department. The girl who was the school reporter for the town daily paper was the chairman of this committee. The play was kept continually before the eye of the public by articles appearing in the local paper. The notices were not long and were carefully placed in the paper. After a general introduction, only one feature of the play was entered each day, but by the time the play ap- peared the public had been informed of every feature and all credits had been given. One day a synopsis of the play was published to give people an opportunity to renew their acquaintance with the play with- out much effort. This was not only for the purpose of getting people to come, but to prepare those who were coming to look for certain fea- tures and enjoy the performance all the more. Wliilc much of this was SHAKESPEAKK TkRCENTENAKY CeLEBKATION 33 niGHTOPREAM SENIOR PUY APRIL 10 A&rtiism 75100 EASTCAROLIMA TEACHERS TRAlJIinCiCHOOL A MIDSUMMER MIGHT^S DREAM SEhlOR PLAY APRIL 10 8:30 RM. ADMIS5I0M .75-100 EAST CAROLINA TEACHERS TRATMJNG SCHOOL A PLAY APRIL 10 8:30 P.M. ADMliSlOfl .75H.0O EASTCAR6UMA TEACHERS TRAlHltlG SCHOOL A niDsunriER MIGHT'S DREAM 5EN(0R PLAY APRIL 10 B:30PM. A0Iil5S10ri .75-L0O| EAST CAROLIMA TEACHERS TRAINIMG SCHOOL Pen Sketches of Posters of the Senior Plat. 34 The Traimno School Quarterly considered advertising and consequently had to be paid for, the material was judiciously handled and the committee believed it obtained maxi- mum results for minimum cost. The day after the performance a two- column write-up was sent by the school reporter at the request of the editors of the paper. Handbills were valuable in advertising the play. They were mailed by students to friends, relatives and parents, and it was seen that all cross-roads stores and villages within a radius of thirty miles was sup- plied with plenty of handbills. The advertising committee was ever alert, and the handbills were used by them very advantageously. At the Eastern High School Meet held in Greenville these bills were generously distributed. Again, the business people of Greenville showed their interest in the Training School by keeping handbills in their stores and distributing them to their customers. The Motion Picture Theater was also used as an aid in advertising. A group of girls took a special lesson from the manager of the theater in how to make advertising slides. These he allowed to be run every night for a week, free of charge; again, this showed the hearty support received from the citizens of the town. The girls made several slides, themselves, illustrating striking features of the play. Mathematics. It took no little mathematical ability to finance the play economically. Committees were appointed who, with the help of one of the teachers of the department, faithfully schemed to use the money to the best ad- vantage. Mathematics was especially needed in selling tickets both for general admission and reserved seats. History. This department proved to be very valuable to the girls in looking up the old Greek customs, manners, and methods of living. It also helped them in interpreting some scenes of the play and helped make them more I'eal. From the above one can readily see that dramatics may be made a vital and beneficial part of regular school work. Plans for Planting the Campus When tlie school was established the grounds were well plotted and paid for and definite beds were arranged and every plant to be planted in these beds was designated, most of which were better suited to a more severe climate. One class planted two beds according to plans. The plants did not seem to thrive, so the beds were not especially successful. It was the dream of some to see the campus planted with Southern plants and shrubs which are adapted to this particular climate. There is a wealth of material and it seemed a pity to nurse scrubby firs when we could just as easily have magnificent magnolias. In the meantime the classes and societies were gradually getting in- terested in the planting and the small flower-beds were evidences of this interest. This desultory planting served the purpose of further interesting the girls in beautifying the campus. Their interest con- tinued to grow until it reached its climax this spring, when the societies assumed the entire financial responsibility for planting the front cam- pus. Mr, Busbee's talk on native plants and shrubs, more than two years ago, perhaps first aroused interest in this object. When the two socie- ties began to look around for a man who would plan for Southern plants, the one man whom they thought qualified was Mr. Jaques Busbee of Raleigh. ISTegotiations were begun with Mr. Busbee last spring. In the sum- mer he drew plans which were presented to the societies after the school opened in the fall. Then the plans were referred to President Wright and were left in his hands until the Board should meet. At the Janu- ary meeting the Board decided to substitute these for the original plans. Mr. Busbee heartily approved of the general plotting of the grounds and did not change the location of beds, but substituted plants which are suited to this climate. At a joint meeting of the two societies on March 11, 1916, Mr. Busbee explained the plans and told exactly what he wished to do. At this time he spent two days in Greenville, and on March 13th met with the inter- Society Committee and placed a definite proposition before them. This was put before the two societies simultaneously and was accepted by each. Mr. Busbee ordered such plants as could be planted this spring. When they arrived he came and did the first planting. In a few years the Training School will have a typical Southern garden which people will come from far and near to see. Lola T. BRiNsojf, President Poe Society. Eunice Yause, President Lanier Society. 36 The Training School Quaetebly The plans are printed below that all the world may sec what the campus of East Carolina Training School will be in the years to come. Plans for Planting Grounds of East Carolina Teachers Training School In presenting these plans for planting the grounds of the Training School, two ideals have been firmly adhered to: fir^t of all, the color effect; and, secondly, selecting those varieties characteristic of Southern gardens and suited to the climate of Greenville. The color effect of the buildings standing against a background of green, is startling ! The walls and roofs are red with white and a touch of yellow. Therefore a prime necessity is to carry those colors out into the surrounding shrubbery and trees, so that the buildings may be tied down to their setting — forced to harmonize and blend with their environ- ment. I have approached this problem as an artist rather than as a landscape gardener or botanist. Unfortunately there are very few available shrubs and trees with red or scarlet flowers, though quite a number with pink or purple-red flowers ; therefore, I have taken the few hardy shrubs with vermillion-rerl flowers and used them in mass, also, with a vieAv to their flowering period. The very first breath of spring wall throw into bloom the red Japanese quince (Cydonia) hedge across the front and the other scattered groups of Cydonia, and at the same time the spireas and exochordas in white. About the same time the yellow Forsythia will add a touch of gold. For a long period in April, May, and June the red pomegranate bushes will repeat the red of the buildings, and throughout the summer the red perennial salvia Greggi will keep up the color. In the fall, wild sumach and sourwood trees will give brilliant spots of red in their autumn foliage and through the winter the berries of holly, yeopon and deciduous holly will give some warmth to the groupings. At the same period of flowering with the pomegranate, white crepe myrtle and Japanese privets will bloom. These are only the salient features. It is unnecessary to enumerate in detail. I have entirely avoided all pink flowers except in the mass planting of Camelia Japonica across the front of the buildings. A large proportion of Camelias are red and white; however, I would strongly recommend these beautiful shrubs. They will grow well in shade, are highly orna- mental through the winter with their dark glossy green foliage, and are always intimately associated with Southern gardens. A fine collection of these wonderful shrubs would be a decided asset for the school. They would attract widespread attention. Thousands of visitors go each spring to see the "Magnolia Gardens" near Charleston, where the col- lection of Indian Azaleas is a sight worth the trip. Plans fob Planting the Campus 37 Handsome varieties of Camelia Japonica are rather high-priced (about $1 apiece), but the collection could be added to from year to year, say by gifts from graduating classes. The buildings and driveways of the Training School are laid out in a formal, balanced manner. I have made the main approach extremely formal with magnolias and tall shaft-like cedars lining the walks. Out on either side of the main entrance is placed a specimen sycamore tree. This is done for two reasons: one, because the tree is a rapid and very symmetrical grower ; and the other, because the color effect is particularly desirable — the yellow-green leaves in summer contrasting well with the dark cedarS;, and in winter the white bark of the limbs repeating in a beautiful way the pilasters and cornices of the buildings. Out in front of the dormitory buildings which are low and spread out in contrast to the central building, are placed mimosa trees (and holly trees for contrast). The mimosa is a broad, spreading, flat-topped tree which will repeat the lines of the building it faces. It blooms through a long period, its deliciously scented blossoms particularly associated with the South where the tree has become naturalized. One special consideration has been to keep up a display of flowers as constantly through the summer as possible, since the summer school makes this institution an all-the-year college. In the large oval bed facing the entrance, groups of yucca have been indicated. This will give the bed permanent beauty and a subtropical touch. The tall white trusses of bloom in early summer will be a decora- tion for commencement; the stiff green foliage handsome and formal through the year. As a wide border to this central bed I have suggested Iris in the school colors — old gold and purple. Iris Germanica Aurea is real old gold, not yellow. Inside of this is a border of the tall purple Iris Germanica Pallida Speciosa which blooms at the same time. These Iris will bloom about the middle of April. There is nothing suitable to this bed which would bloom in the school colors at commencement time. This suggested planting is not intended as the complete scheme. Some two years after this permanent planting of trees and shrubbeiy has been done, a good deal of color should be added in the way of hardy herbaceous perennials. A great many gaps and spaces should be filled in with such perennials as Asclepias tuberosa. Aster grandiflorus, Erithrina Christi- Galli, Oriental poppies. Perennial Phlox in white and orange and red, HemerocaUis, Mallows in red and white, various roses and perennial Helianthus. "When pergolas are built connecting the main building with the side buildings, the unity of the plan will be greatly enhanced. These pergolas should be covered with vines of yellow jessamine, Cherokee rose, wood- bine (Lonicera Sempervirens), and orange trumpet vine. The trumpet vines (Tecoma Radicans and Grandiflora) will be especially fine as the flowers repeat the color of the buildings almost exactly, particularly the 38 The Training School Quarterly Chinese variety, and they will bloom through a long period in June and July. Throughout, an effort has been made to keep to unity of effect, unity in the disposition of masses, and, above all, unity in color harmony. No amount of planting of rare and expensive varieties can be effective unless the colors of blossoms are in mass and those masses harmonize with the buildings and surroundings. As to native trees and shrubs: the effort to repeat the color of the buildings in the planting has been paramount to the use of native varie- ties. In every case where it has been possible, native trees and shrubs have been designated. A great many of the varieties used are common to all Southern gardens, and, in a sense, native. It seems to me more important to plant with an eye to color and what is distinctively South- ern, than to sacrifice the entire effect of the grounds to a botanical sense. After the front of the grounds has been planted, there is ample space for planting groups of strictly native flowers and shrubs. Another point is this : the grounds in front of the buildings are dry fields in full sun. Many native plants will require special placing as to shade and moisture, and such plantings can be done where those special conditions exist in various other parts of the campus. Broad-leaved evergreens are characteristically Southern, just as Spruce and fir are of the Xorth. As far as possible, I have used broad-leaved evergreens, especially across the front of the buildings. Cape Jessamine, Camelia Japonica, Sweet Olive, single white Oleander, Lauristinus (Yirburnum Tinus), Osmanthus — all these will grow well in the posi- tions indicated. Many of these shrubs can be seen growing finely in various Greenville yards. The winter months must be considered as well as the summer months, and with a planting that is not bare of leaves through cold weather, grounds are more cheerful and seem actually warmer than the thermom- eter will indicate. The cost of this planting should be divided up into five periods of one year each. All of the trees and the larger groups of shrubbery should be planted first, to be followed yearly with additions of the smaller groups and plantings. Finally the herbaceou.s varieties can be put in last, as they will give a full return in one season. This will spread the cost of planting over a sufficient period to keep the expense from falling too heavily at any one time and results will be just as satisfactory at the end of five years as they would be should the planting be done complete at once. Jaques Busbee. A Sketch of Helen Keller Nelle White, '16. Ou May 1, 1916, Helen Keller, perhaps the most celebrated woman of America, was at East Carolina Teachers Training School, and with her was her teacher, Mrs. Macy. A large audience greeted them and during the whole time every one was breathlessly attentive, even the children. Before Miss Keller made her talk Mrs. Macy gave a thrilling account of her work with Helen, telling of her early days and many incidents of her life, how she overcame difficulties, and how determined she was to go forward and to take a college course. After Mrs. Macy's talk, Helen Keller was led to the rostrum amid applause from the audience. She is very young looking, has ash-blonde, wavy hair, fair complexion, and is of a good build — altogether a hand- some, attractive young woman. She .shows her wonderful health in every way. She is very light on her feet and often springs lightly on her toes. She had been on the rostrum only a short time when she caught the odor of a lily and wanted to find it. Mrs. Macy led her to it. Helen smelled it and said: "Beautiful, beautiful." The spontaneity of the act captivated the audience at once. Before she began her talk she repeated the twenty-third Psalm, because it was perfectly familiar to all, so as to accustom the audience to her voice. Mrs. Macy said : "It has taken over twenty years for Helen to learn to speak as well as she does now, but there is much yet to be desired." Mrs. Macy talked to Helen a short while before she began, and Helen read her teacher's lips by putting her fingers on her lips and throat. The subject of her talk was "Happiness." She made those in the au- dience feel that having all their senses, they should do more to make those happy around them than they had done. She said that people should be happy, and they could be so by making others happy. Below are some quotations from her talk : "Happiness comes from within; love and happiness from achievement and gain." "There is no darkness that the sun fails to find." "He blocks progress who stands still." "The secret of happiness is to do for others." "We live for each other and by each other." "It is more difficult to teach the ignorant to think than the blind to see." After she finished the audience asked her questions, which were 40 TiiK Training School Quarterly repeated to her by Mrs. Macy. Her answers showed her ready wit and sound judgment. Here are a few of them : "When did you become a Christian?" "When I was about nine." "When did you learn about God?" "I had always known about Him, but had forgotten His name." "What did you like best about college?" "Graduation. Then Philosophy, as it was so beautiful and helpful." "What is your highest ambition?" "To help make men happy and good." "Are you a Suffragist?" "Yes" (very emphatically). "Why?" "Every up-to-date woman is." "How do you stand on the subject of 'Preparedness'?" "Dead against it." "Why?" "Because it ultimately means war. But I would be for it if only Kaisers, kings, and Congressmen wore to do the fighting." "You do believe in some kind of 'preparedness,' do you not?" "Yes; the preparedness that promotes intelligence and efficiency; that includes good roads, schools, clean cities, and better wages for working men." "Do you think in words or sentences?" "I think in ideas." "Have you any perception of color?" "I can perceive green when I talk to some people." "What sense had you rather have restored, if you could have one?" "Hear- ing, for that cuts me off from the world more than blindness does." "Do you swim and row?" "Yes, I do both." Various other questions were asked and she showed her keen intelli- gence and wit in answering them. She told how she could feel the ap- plause through her feet; she knew when the audience laughed by the "pleasant tremblings in the air," and she told how she heard music through her hands. Every one took away in his heart the sweet message that Miss Keller gave them ; each felt as if he had witnessed a miracle. As Miss Keller and Mrs. Macy are making a tour of iSTorth Carolina, it seems that this is an opportune time to give a short sketch of her life. She was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama, in 18S0, and is the daughter of Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She is related on one side to Governor Spottswood, and on the other to Edward Everett Hale. She was a normal child until she was nineteen months old, when she was very ill, the nature of which illness has never been found out, and as a result she became deaf and blind and for the first few years dumb, also. During the first nineteen months of her life she caught glimpses of broad, green fields, a luminous sky, trees and flowers, which were not wholly blotted out by the darkness that soon enveloped her. By signs she was able to make those around her understand what she wanted. When she wanted bread she made the motion of cutting and buttering it. Her mother and father understood her, and she could make a little negro girl named Martha Washington understand her. After she had been using signs for some time the desire to express her wants and thoughts grew so rapidly that her parents decided to secure a teacher for her to see what could be done for her. A Sketch of Helen Kelleb 41 Througli Dr. Howe, of Perkins Institute, Boston, who had done so much for Laura Bridgman, the first blind, deaf and dumb child who had been taught. Miss Anne Sullivan, now Mrs. Macy, was secured for Helen. Mrs. Macy arrived at Tuscumbia in March, 1S87, and she became very much interested in Helen at once. She taught Helen her first lesson by means of a doll Laura Bridgman had dressed for her. When she gave her the doll she spelled the word d-o-l-l into her hand, and, although she did not understand, she imitated her and soon could spell it. She learned cahe and other words in the same way, but she only thought it was a game she was playing. Full understanding did not dawn upon her until one day when she was taken to the pump and water was pumped over her hand. While the water was being pumped on one hand the teacher spelled iu-a4-e-r into the other hand. She stood still, but in a few minutes a light, the light of intelligence showed on her face, for she realized that everything has a name. She wanted to know the name of everything around her. She learned thirty new words in a few hours. From this time on she learned rapidly. She soon learned to read Braille type and could read stories for herself. Still she was not satisfied for she wished to learn to speak like other people, so she was taken to Boston, and Mrs. Sara Fuller, who had worked in this line before, taught her the elements of speech. She was delighted when she could make sounds and was happy when she uttered her first sentence, which was : "I am not dumb now." In 1904 she graduated at Kadcliffe College, which had seemed im- possible to many, but by perseverance and work she overcame all the difficulties she met. On almost all of her classes her teacher spelled into her hand what the instructors said. "The Story of My Life" was written by her as themes while she was in college. She writes for some magazines sometimes, but is devoting her life in trying to make it so that the blind will have' less difficulty in getting the books and other things that they need. She also does all she can to make people happy. Helen Keller never likes to be idle, but wants to be doing something all the time. She wants to be like other people, and most of all to talk to them on topics of the day. From her letters in "The Story of My Life" much is learned in regard to her personality. She is very sympathetic and tender-hearted, happy, contented with her lot, likes to do for others and wants to help in great movements for improvements. Perhaps .some will be interested to read her first letter, which was written three months after her teacher came, to her Cousin Anna (Mrs. Geo. T. Turner) : Tuscumbia. Ai.a.. June 17. 1887. helen write anna george will give helen apple simpson will shoot bird jack will give helen stick of candy doctor will give mildred medicine mother will make mildred new dress. ("o signature.) 42 The Tkaining School Quakterly She improved in lier writing very rapidly. She does almost all of her work now on a typewriter. From this first baby letter to the leading articles in the best magazines is a far cry. But the wonderful thing in her life, the miracle, is developing speech from absolute dumbness to the point where she can address audiences in large halls so that she can be heard and understood. More wonderful still, she does not merely call words so that one can catch the miracle of speech from the dumb, but she delivers a message replete with sound philosophy, wholesome optimism, that within itself is an inspiration. Helen Keller is a miracle and a genius. Reports on Special Trips Miss Armstrong's Report on the Sand Hill Farm Life School Miss Martha Armstrong, teacher of Household Economics in East Carolina Teachers Training School, spent three days this spring giving lectures and demonstrations in the Eureka, or Sand Hill, Farm-Life School in Moore County. This is the school in which Miss Mary Eankin, formerly of the Training School, is working. Miss Rankin told in the last issue of the Quarterly some of the interesting things they were doing. Miss Armstrong's report gives the point of view not of the mere visitor, but of the expert who would he keenly sensitive to all of the household affairs in this school community. It would be interesting to put the two accounts together. It is in the main the same story, but from a different angle. Miss Annstrong may tell the story of her visit herself : "All of the work of this school is done by the boarding pupils, who are required to give a certain amount of time each day to the work; they are paid for excess time at the rate of 10 cents per hour. One group of girls gets breakfast, which is served at 6:45. After breakfast, while they are washing dishes, another group prepares lunch, leaving it on the back of the stove to cook slowly or ready to be finished quickly at noon. The girls who are not busy in the kitchen clean the house. Supper is cooked in the evening by the group that cleans the house in the morning. The boys make the fires, bring in wood, take off the garbage, and help with the heavier work of the house, in addition to doing their work on the farm. "While I was there a protracted meeting was going on and the farm work was discontinued for the time being. There were two meetings a day. The girls were tired out from attending the meeting, so the teacher of agriculture and four boys volunteered to wash dishes one night and cook breakfast two mornings. They did this very creditably with Miss Rankin's assistance, much to the joy of the girls. One little ten-year-old fellow liked it so well that he wished to keep it up. "Several girls are paying part of their expenses by serving tea and sand- wiches to automobilists. As the school is on one of the pikes, they make a neat little sum. They also make candy, which is sold by one of the stores in Pinehurst. They cannot supply the demand. "The school is indeed the real community center. At least one entertain- ment a month is given for the neighborhood. Church services are held in the school building. During the protracted meeting the girls served hot coffee at noon to the families who brought their lunch and stayed to both meetings. "Winter tourists who come to Pinehurst and Southern Pines and the peo- ple of the neighboring towns manifest great interest in the school. Many books and magazines are given to the school. There is a constant stream of visitors. "The women are now working for money to erect a new dormitory this summer as the school has outgrown the old one. At one time the people of Southern Pines gave a sale from which they realized $1,100. One lady was 44 The Tkainino School Quarteblt going to give a card party to raise money to buy a mule. By the end of the summer they will have established a model dairy. The school is fortunate in that it has such excellent financial support. "A year ago the school was an ordinary country high school. The Woman's Auxiliary of the Sand Hill Board of Trade decided that their county must have a farm-life school. They chose the Eureka School for the place, and de- cided to build a new schoolhouse and a girls' dormitory just across the road from the old schoolhouse, which was made over into a dormitory for the boys. A small chemical laboratory and a barn were added to these buildings, mak- ing a group of buildings. A well with a force pump, a hot-air furnace, and electric lights were installed. The school has a farm of about sixty acres. "The girls' dormitory is the center of the school social life. There is a big living-room with comfortable chairs, books, and a rack full of magazines. Here the students gather for a short time in the evenings and listen to some one's playing on the piano, or to the Victrola, which was given to the school by one of the winter tourists who did not wish to take the trouble of carry- ing it back home with him. The dining-room has a big open fireplace, which makes corn-popping and apple-roasting favorite amusements. "The kitchen is fitted with all the inexpensive conveniences, the fireless cooker, rolling tray, sink, running water, a garbage chute, an oil stove, all of which the women of the neighborhood might have in their own homes. In the weekly cooking lessons given to the women of the community they are taught to use these conveniences. "The school is the center of the canning clubs, and the county agent has given a canner to the school. "The school is certainly doing a great many interesting things, and I am greatly interested in watching it." Miss Armstrong gave three demonstrations to the women of the com- munity. The first one was the cooking of meats. Meats were prepared in several different ways ; for instance, roast meat, baked chicken, broiled pork, and beef stew. The second day the demonstration was on bread- making, particularly loaf bread and rolls. The stew, which did not have time to get done the day before, was served with the bread. The tbird day was devoted to a demonstration and talk on the arrangement of the kitchen, and home equipment. All of the high school boys and the principal attended this so that they could learn to make the things recom- mended for their own homes. Miss Davis Visits Other Normal Schools Miss Sallie Joyner Davis had a week's leave of absence during the spring for the purpose of visiting other normal schools. Instead of dissipating her time by trying to catch fleeting glimpses only of several schools she concentrated on two that she considered representative types of the schools that are doing somewhat the same work that this school is doing. The two schools that she chose Avere the Eastern Kentucky Normal at Richmond, Kentucky, and the State Normal and Industrial School at Harrisonburg, Virginia. The Eastern Kentucky Normal is the successor to the campus of the old Central University, therefore, it has a campus much older than Reports on Special Trips 45 the school. Miss Davi& spoke enthusiastically of this beautiful campus, which has wonderful elms planted down the driveways. One of the features that impressed her was the success of co-education. Of the seven or eight hundred students, forty-five per cent were men and fifty- five per cent women. The spirit was rather like the western spirit than the southern in the attitude towards co-education. A very efficient Model School is one of the most excellent departments of this normal school. Although this school is in the administration building one would never know it from the noise. The order and disci- pline that were maintained without the feeling of strained effort for it was noticeable. Miss Davis was the guest of the school. She came away with very delightful impressions. At Harrisonburg she was greatly impressed with the excellent exten- sion work in Domestic Science. Twenty-two girls were teaching in fourteen schools, each girl teaching a class once a week. They went out on early morning trains to the schools in the surrounding towns, and in vehicles to the schools in the country; some of the trains left as early as five-thirty o'clock. The head of the department spent every morning visiting these schools, directing the work, and met her classes in the normal school in the afternoons. Miss Davis enjoyed seeing the handsome new library this school has, and watching the efficient service in the library, but sighed for the time when we, too, could boast of ours. She found that the practice work of the student teachers of the grades was done in the schools of the town. Some of the most delightful hours of her trip were those between trains at Staunton when she visited the Mary Baldwin School, the board- ing school she attended. She says it is the last word said on the select boarding school for girls. From cellar to attic she inspected it. A quarter of a million dollars has been spent on the school recently. The week-end before returning home Miss Davis stopped over in Washington, visiting the Congressional Library, Congress, Smithsonian Institution, the Bureau of Engraving, and other places. She says she went nowhere that she did not go for the special purpose of getting something specific for this school. The' students thoroughly enjoyed getting her reports of her trip while they were fresh in her mind. She brought back many excellent ideas. In some things she felt thar we had much to give others and in other things she thought we could benefit from them. 46 The Training School Qi-arteijly *The Threshold Baebara Seymour Life lies before me, but shut is the door On all my childish days. No more, no more Shall I in all my years again be free And careless — happy as I used to be. So be it, Lord! I know that is all right, I would not alter it, or shirk the fight. Shut then the door — but leave a little crack That when I meet a child I may slip back. Harper's Magazine, March, 1916. 'CopjTight 1916, by Harper and Brothers. Cf)e Craining ^cfiool (!^uarterlj> Published by the Students and Faculty of the East Carolina Teachees Training School, Greenville, N. C. Entered as Second Class Matter, June 3, 1914, at the Postofl&ce at Greenville, N. C., under the Act of March 3, 1879. Price: 50 cents a year. 15 cents single copy. FACULTY EDITOR Mamie E. Jenkins ALUMNA EDITOR Pattie S. Dowell STUDENT EDITORS. Laniee Literary Society. Poe Literary Society. Julia Rankin, Editor-in-Chief. Lucile O'Brian, Business Manager. Trilby Smith, Assistant Editor. Alice Herring, Assistant Editor. Vol. III. APRIL, MAY, JUNE, 1916. No. 1 It Is Mine Own A child that has been allowed to have his own little patch of ground, to plant his own radishes, onions, beans, corn, and the particular vegetable that he likes best, never gets away from the love of the soil. Even a few seed in a few square feet of ground planted, watered, cultivated, watched day by day, can open the mind to all processes of nature that are essential. It is like Tennyson's "Flower in the crannied wall — Could I but understand you I would know God and the universe." The pictures of the gardens at the Training School show the students at work on their plots; the article by the teacher who watches their interest in these gardens gives the details. Agriculture Agriculture and the "sweet girl graduate" may not Graduates seem at first sight to harmonize. Both are in this num- ber of the Quaktekly; if you stop and think about it there is no reason why they should not be, and many reasons why they should be. Why should not variety, in a magazine as well as out of it, be the spice of life? We have the doctrine that all should be well balanced preached to us from all platforms. We are advised to have our days well balanced, dividing up the work and the play; labor should be well balanced, having some mental and some manual; we talk of well-bal- anced meals, well-balanced minds; what does it all mean, if not the old proverb on variety ? The senior department, however, has far more value than merely giving variety. If it had no virtue within itself it would not be in the magazine. It gives an insight into the personality of forty-eight young 48 TiiK Tr^vinino School Quarterly womeu who are going to be in forty-eight diflFerent school rooms next year. Let each one have only thirty pupils; and a simple operation in arithmetic will help you to see how far-reaching their personalities will be. Why should not these forty-eight young women be of interest to the public? A. U. The Senior In the Senior departiiioiit of this iiunilx^r of the Qtar- TERLY the quotations that feature some characteristic of each girl were not ])icked up at random and indiscrim- inately attached to any girl. They are the result of careful search through the plays of Shakespeare; in this tercentenary year it seemed fitting to honor each girl with the line from the great master of human nature that seemed written just for her. The forecasting of the future of each member of the class is not the mere play of fancy, flights of youthful and vivid imagination for the entertainment of the class, but is based on the fundamental principles of psychology. The facetious vein in which these principles are applied merely proves that these girls are normal, fun-loving creatures. The chronicles left by each Senior class published in the Quarterly furnish a complete record of school events that center in the class activi- ties that in the future will have historical value. This summary of events of the four years life of a class gives an insight into the life of the school. Why not read this department and see what the girls say for them- selves and each other? A. H. The Training Que of the marked features of the Training School Responds to from the beginning has been the readiness with which Calls those connected with the school have responded to all demands from the community and from beyond. It has been the policy of those in authority to keep the school as much a part of life as possible. A glance through the department of "School Notes" of any issue of the Quarterly will give some idea of the demands made on faculty and students, and will show what the school brings to the community. The president of the school attends all of the big educational meetings throughout the country whenever he thinks it probable that he can get anything of value for the school. The men of the faculty are in demand as commencement speakers. The members of the faculty have repeated calls for doing extension work. The amount of extension carried on through private correspondence cannot well be estimated. The people of the town find the teachers ready to respond to calls for aid in clubs, church work, and in school affairs, wherever they are needed to help. The same spirit is encouraged in the students. During the year the members of the Senior class have been conducting story-stelling at the Editorials 49 Greenville Public Library.- The student-teachers have supplied for regular teachers in both the town and county schools when a teacher had to be absent from her work. While the opportunity to get experience is excellent for any girl, it would be easy for her to become so absorbed in the routine life of the school that she would feel that she could not break away from it. "Give all that thou hast" is the dominant feeling in faculty and students. J. R. History There have been a number of requests from far and Then and wide for the last number of the Quarterly because of ^^ the suggestions on the teaching of primary history. This was largely due to the fact, perhaps, that the History Teachers' Maga- zine referred to these suggestions. Whatever the cause, it is clear that teachers and superintendents are on the alert for ideas for vitalizing history. Once the mere mention of history produced a weary feeling; endless lines of kings, wars that one could not keep straight, dates without facts attached to them, and isolated facts without dates, all crowded pellmell into the brain. One shudders yet at the memory of grilling he had to endure as a child, if the teacher were the conscientious type. Other teachers heard the lesson with the book open, keeping an eye on the dates, and excused the children for not remembering them. One of the "bromides" of conversation is, "I never could remember dates." ISTow, how different ! History is life. In the lower grades it is making playhouses, playing the home-life of the people the child knows, of the interesting little folks of other lands, Eskimos, Japanese, Dutch. It is the child's natural play turned to account. When the child gets this idea of history he never loses the realization that history is a record of life. As It A young, prospective teacher, in looking around for Should Be her first position, selected the county she wished to teach in, found the type of school in which she thought she would fit, and applied for the place. She was asked to meet the com- mitteemen on the first Monday that she could get away from school. She met them, talked over the whole situation with them, and was offered the position. Before she left the community she visited the schoolhouse, got all the information she could about the school, learned what the teacher attempted to do this year, so that she could build her work next year on what had already been done, came in contact with the people, and found out what the chief problems of the school and the community were. All summer long this young teacher will have in mind the school she is going into next fall, and all she does and thinks will 4 50 Thk Training Sciio<m. (^iautkuly center in this. She will go into the couunuiiity in September eager to begin her work, ready for it ; she knows what she is going to attempt to do and has her year's campaign mapped out. Contrast with this the other ty[)e, the teacher who is going to teach solely for what she can get out of it, i)utting as little as possible into it. She goes to her work on the last train, and goes to the schoolhouse the first morning to get ready to begin to get ready. It will take her half the year to find out what the other girl knows before her school opens, if she ever does find out. Which one do you prefer? One Who Dr. Kary C. Davis, the writer of the leading article Knows i^^ t^is number of the Quarterly, has a vantage point that enables him to look over the whole field of agricul- ture, especially the teaching of agriculture, and get it in perspective. He sees the strong points, the defects, the causes of failure and success, and can suggest remedies where they are needed. Reference to "Who's Wbo" will disclose the fact that he is an authority second to none. It is interesting to note that he develops the cultural value of Agriculture, and stresses the need for teachers of agriculture who have background. The teacher of agriculture who cannot use clear, correct English, who cannot write well, and speak convincingly is seriously handicapped. Teachers of agriculture will not be accepted as leaders until men of personality and ability take up the work. They must have more than fact knowledge of the subject. Suggestions A 1916 Model Store in the Third Grade "How am I to make children feel a need for working little problems in order to develop tlieir reasoning power, after they have been drilled on the four fundamental processes of arithmetic?" This was the ques- tion that confronted the teacher of the third grade at the Model School. A teacher who wishes to make arithmetic as attractive and practical as possible should provide some means by which the children will enjoy number combinations. After having read what other teachers have done to solve thi^ problem, the teacher of the third grade decided that a store could be worked in this grade, and based her work more directly on the ideas brought out in Miss Helen Strong's article, "Using JSTumber Combinations to Meet a Social JSTeed," printed in last summer's Quar- terly. Almost every child, at some time, has a little money of his own, and is at liberty to go to the store and buy what he pleases. Many times his mother sends him on an errand for her. Thinking of the various helps connected with the store, the teacher asked the children if they would like to have a store in school, and, if so, where. A child sug- gested that one corner of the room be used. Chairs, with boards across them, were used for counters, as there were no boxes convenient. "What shall we have in the store ?" was then the question. The chil- dren suggested various things : cans that once held peas, beans, corn, soups, and fruits ; empty cereal boxes, as Quaker Oats and Puffed Kice ; cans of coffee, sugar, tea; and empty bottles. The children enjoyed bringing these from their homes from day to day. For fresh fruit the children used the oranges, apples, bananas, pears, cherries, and lemons that they had cut from drawing paper and colored. This furnished busy work for one section while the others solved prob- lems about the store. The month was February, therefore Valentines, hatchets, flags, and booklets for George Washington's birthday were made and sold in the store. When the store was stocked with a sufficient amount of goods and the children had found out the prices, the arrangement and handling of goods was discussed. The unsanitary way in which candies and fruits are usually handled was emphasized. Two of the children were then chosen to arrange the store and serve as clerks. A certain amount of money was distributed to each child, and several dollars in change given to the clerks. The money used was that ordered from Milton and Bradley, Springfield, Mass., at 25 cents a box. A box contains around 300 dollars in the different combinations. 52 The Teainlng School Qdabtebly If you can not get this, have the children cut discs the regular size of money from pasteboard or drawing paper, and mark the amounts on them. Before going to the store each child would come to the front of the room, give the price of the object he wa^ going to buy, and the amount of change he would receive. If the class said his calculations were right, he could then go to the store. If he wished to buy a list of things a memorandum was made. As this required spelling various words, it Avas a motive for good spelling lessons. Sometimes a bookkeeper was selected Avho kept books on the board by writing down the amount taken in. At the end of each lesson the class figured the amount made that day, and if a mistake was made they felt the need of being more accurate the following day. On the last day the children imagined that their fruit was rapidly decaying and they had better have a special sale, reduce the prices, and sell out the entire stock. They wanted a big crowd at the sale, so after a spelling lesson on the names of fruits, each child made a poster, and the best ones were tacked on the door. A few minutes before the sale several children wdth posters tied on their backs marched through the fourth-grade room. Each child was given fifty cents for bargains. When the advertised hour, 10 :30, came, the room was filled with children ready to buy. In a few minutes the entire stock w^as sold. The children learned what a special sale was for, how it was managed, and the im- portance of good advertising in order to have a big crowd. From this we see the many values of the store in the school-room. It furnished motives for lessons in spelling, language, writing, drawing, history, hygiene and sanitation, and especially in number work in its most practical way. Allen Gardner, '16. Freehand Cutting in the First Grade Freehand cutting of the various early spring flowers, the geranium, hyacinth, crocus, jonquil, and tulip were used for independent seatwork, in the first grade at the Model School. Several cuttings of the flowers in different positions and colors were made, and placed before the chil- dren as models. The only directions given were just to call their atten- tion to the shape and color of the leaves and flowers, then they were left free to cut them according to their own ideas. They cut each petal separately, then pasted them so that they would form the flower, on grey or white paper, which served as a background. For instance, in cutting the geranium the flower was formed by pasting little pieces of red paper, or the color wanted, to form the flower. While, on the other hand, in cutting the crocus the flower was cut from yellow paper as a whole, then the leaves and stem out of green, and pasted on the grey paper. The children were highly delighted with them, and the student teach- ers delighted with their success. The best were selected and put up to Suggestions 53 forin a border around the room, and the children were pleased when visitors commented on the spring-like effect of the room. Jessamine Ashley, '16. [As the schools are all closed it was deemed best not to have as many suggestions as usual from the student teachers of the Model School. Only two are given. In place of others a piece of practical work, full of suggestion, done by one of the regular classes in the school is given. — Editor.] History Made Real by a Magazine During the past year the National Geographic Magazine, a file of which we have almost unbroken since the beginning of 1910, has been an unfailing source of help and pleasure to the B group of students in their European history. In the fall we found the magazine particularly helpful in our once-a- week current news class when we were trying to find out something more of the leading countries, now involved in war, than that they were places on the map and stood first, second, or last in the list of great naval or military powers. The one hundred illustrations that are to be found in one number about the people of France, made us understand more keenly the reasons why France was able to check the mighty raid of the Germans in the fall of 1914. Our year's work in the text-book began with the formation of Charle- magne's great empire, and from the very beginning we were able to supplement the text-book with some number of the magazine that helped us to bridge over the gap between us and the past. Assignments were carefully given by our teacher and each girl was held responsible for an oral report fixed for a certain time. As the class time was limited the girls had to use much skill and judgment in the presentation of their topics. A new world was opened to us by the magazine while we were study- ing about the Crusades, those wonderful expeditions of the people of western Europe to reclaim the Holy Lands. We read about the people of Jerusalem, how they lived, about the marriage customs, their hospi- tality and their kindness to the destitute, their quaint street restaurants, where they served roasted meat and flat loaves of bread. We saw the pictures of the trees that were so much admired by the Crusaders, who attempted to introduce them into Europe. Tracing the routes of the Crusades led us through the Balkan States. If the magazine had been arranged for our special benefit, it could not have succeeded better. From the issue of April, 1915, we learned that Bulgaria was one of the most progressive of the Balkan States. We also formed some idea of the educational strides of the people and their economic conditions. The fact that the women carry water from springs in stone jars made us realize how they still cling to primitive customs. We were intere-sted 54 The Training School Quabtebly in the differeut forms of social pleasures, one of which was a dance in the mountain village. We saw from the colored prints that the Bul- garian girls love bright colors and that their shawls and aprons were decorated with beautiful embroidery. The pictures revealed that the women work on the farm as much as the men do. "We learned that Serena had a liberal constitution, and that manufac- turing and agriculture were their chief industries. Of course, we noticed the novel customs, such as the way they did their laundry, more than we did the vital questions. The women, scorning to be idle, do all the household drudgery for their families, but they never take any commer- cial positions, considering it a disgrace to work for money outside of the home. Isn't that like the women, anywhere, fifty years ago ? The picture of a wedding procession in Roumania naturally attracted the attention of a group of girls. The bride, with her bridesmaids riding in the plebian vehicle, the ox-cart, was interesting to us. To girls whose lives have been spent in North Carolina it gave a home-like touch to see the familiar sight of an ox-cart. Before we used the Geographic Magazine the word Armenia had meant a vague territory somewhere in Asia Minor, in fact, it meant almost nothing to me. I have learned that Armenia extends from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, and covers an area of 500,000 square miles of fertile, rugged, and beautiful land ; that the Armenians are not even an organized people, but have to submit to the most inhuman treatment by the Turkish government; that they have an eagerness for education and this has been encouraged largely by American missionaries. It added to our interest that our teacher took a trip while we were doing this work, and, on her return, one of the many things that she told us was that she had been by the home of the Geographic Magazine. One of the girls said, ''My, you felt as though you had met an old friend, didn't you?" This is the way we will feel when we take that trip and see the home of the Geographic Magazine. Bhss Tillitt, '18. Reviews The Readjustment of a Rural High School to the Needs of the Com- munity, by H. A, Brown, Bulletin No. 492, United States Bureau of Education. This is the story of the readjustment of Colebrook Academy, which is located in the extreme northern part of ISTew Hampshire. The Acad- emy was built in 1832 on a grant of land received from the State; later it was conducted as a private institution, then as a public high school supported by taxation. In 1910 it was decided to reorganize the school and instead of keeping the old college preparatory and English curricula, four courses of study were substituted: (1) college preparatory; (2) commercial; (3) agricultural, and (4) domestic arts. It was felt that the old course of study did not prepare the boys and girls for life in the way it should ; it was educating them away from the farm. In making the change in the curriculum care was taken that such things should be offered as would educate the young people to the farm. The old Academy building was remodelled and a new building and a greenhouse were built. All of these are thoroughly up-to-date. Some of the main features are: (1) The greenhouse; (2) the dairy laboratory, (3) the domestic arts department, and (4) the shop, including a car- penter shoj) and a blacksmith shop. The faculty consists of a superintendent, a principal and five teachers ; all have specialized in their line of work, and in this way are able to meet the approval of the State department of public instruction. This is one of the rural schools that is solving the problem of the welfare of the countiy districts. It is believed that the training that the boys and girls get at such a .school will create within them an interest in the farm and home problem and will check the trend toward the city. "The rural high school has a most important part to play in the tendency known as the 'country life movement.' * * * A great responsibility rests upon it and upon those who have its management in charge. It can not meet this great responsibility unless its program of studies is reconstructed along lines calculated to bring about readjustment to the real needs of the community." J- R- Efficiency and- Preparation of Rural School Teachers, by Harold "W". Foght, specialist in rural school practice. Bulletin 'No. 623, United States Bureau of Education. In his letter of transmittal, Dr. Claxton says: "The most important factor in any school is the teacher. * * * True of all schools, this is especially true * * * in the open country village and small town." In order to find out about the preparation of the teachers in the rural schools of the United States, the Bureau of Education sent inquiries to 56 The Teainino School Quarterly 6,000 teachers. About 50 per cent responded. The statistical reports given in this bulletin are based upon fifty-five typical counties in the United States. ''Of the 2,941 teachers replying, 4 per cent have had less than eight years of elementary schooling; 45 per cent have completed four years of high school work; 32.3 per cent have had no professional preparation, and only 3.2 per cent are normal school graduates." Since broader views of rural education have come into prominence, there is a demand for the reorganization of the old one-teacher schools, and that provision be made for rural high schools that are well equipped and in reach of every child. In order that these schools may perform their function of making good citizens, they must have professionally trained teachers, ''imbued with correct vision and real power, who establish themselves in the rural district as permanent teachers and county builders." Figures show that about two-thirds of the teachers reporting teach eight or more grades each. Of the 2,941 teachers reporting, 73 live in houses provided by the schools, 2,415 board in the community, and 526 board outside the district. "Public school teachers in the United States receive an average salary of $486. * * * Artisans, domestics, and com- mon laborers receive better wages than do these teachers. "The change from amateur to professional teaching may be hastened in several ways : (1) Salaries should be increased ; * * * (2) the entire school plant should be reconstructed to answer present needs and be attractive and sanitary; (3) the community should be obliged by legal enactment to erect a teachers' cottage; (4) teachers' colleges, normal schools, and other schools with teacher-training classes should be en- couraged to organize district departments in rural life and rural teaching. "The largest immediate supply of rural teacher^ come from the train- ing department of the high schools in many States; next, in point of number, stands the normal school, schools of education in college and universities ; finally come the agricultural colleges." I. Report of Boys' Club Work in North Caroli/na; II. Arithmetic Problems Based Upon Agricultural Club Wor'k, By T. E. Browne, the N'orth Carolina Agricultural Extension Sei-vice, Circular No. 8, gives the purpose and the figures of the boys' clubs in N'orth Carolina that have been sent in from the different clubs. In the section devoted to the history of the club work, many interest- ing facts are given. The Boys' Com Club was first organized in 1908, to work in connection with the rural schools. It was about this time that work was begun by the State Department of Agriculture and the Farmers' Cooperative Demonstration Work. Because the work of these organizations was .so much alike, confusion arose. In order to prevent this all the corn club work was organized under one direction in 1912. Poultry clubs and pig clubs were started in 1914, under the Animal Reviews 57 Industry Division of North Carolina Experiment Station, and the Bureau of Animal Industry at Washington. This caused more con- fusion among the clubs. So, at the beginning of the year 1915, "all the boys' club work was placed under the direction of an agent in charge, the work to be known as the 'Boys' Agricultural Clubs.' " Since this reorganization the work has been satisfactory, and all club work is more closely connected. Included in the Boys' Agricultural Clubs today are : the Boys' Com Clubs, the Pig Clubs, the Poultry Clubs, the Crop Rota- tion Clubs, the Peanut Clubs, the Potato Clubs, the Cotton Clubs, and the Negro Boys' Farm Clubs. Since the reorganization the membership has increased and there has been great improvement in the reports and written histories that the boys send in. In the report the names, with their counties, are given of twelve boys who raised one hundred or more bushels of corn on one acre, at a cost of less than twenty cents a bushel. In order to reach as many boys and girls as possible, letters are sent in bulk to the county superintendents, and they are asked to distribute them among the teachers. The teachers are then supposed to interest the children in the movement, and to have all who wish to join the clubs fill out the enclosed blank and send back to the department. Once or twice a month circular letters, advising about the work to be done at that particular time, are sent to each member. Besides this, personal letters and bulletins and circulars of the Extension Service and the United States Department of Agriculture are mailed frequently. When- ever possible the agents visit the members and advise them about the work. During the summer .short schools of one or two days are held in many counties and the men of the club work teach the boys some of the funda- mental principles of plant and animal growing. A short course lasting four days is held at the Agricultural and Mechanical College, and the boys have the privilege of hearing lectures delivered by members of the college faculty and of visiting the experiment station. Besides, there are illustrated lectures, and sight-seeing trips over the Capital. The Crop Rotation Club joined the other clubs in 1916, and it is too early to have a report from it. During 1915 the department of the Negro Boys' Farm Clubs was added. Its work is to be done in cooperation with the Agricultural and Technical College for negroes at Greensboro, and the office of the Boys' Agricultural Clubs at West Raleigh. Five thousand five hundred members are enrolled in all these clubs now — Corn Club: total number of boys enrolled in the State, 3,504; total number of bushels reported, 70,062.5; total cost, $30,611.85; total profit, $39,450.65; 95 of the 100 counties have members enrolled; 50 boys made ]00 bushels and over. Pig Club: total enrollment, 768; average weight of pigs for market, 269.7 pounds; average initial cost 58 The Training School Quarterly of pigs for meat, $4.28. Poultry Club : total enrollment, 1,056 ; total number of chickens raised, 14,965 ; total value of chickens raised, $11,237.50. Fifty arithmetic problems based upon the agricultural club work have been prepared for supplementary work in the rural schools. They are suitable for sixth- and seventh-grade work, preferably the sixth. Any teacher will be supplied for the asking. These problems give not only excellent training in arithmetic, but, also, a great deal of valuable in- formation. They show the children the relation between farm work and arithmetic. The problems on measuring an acre of land and run- ning oif the corn rows give good exercise in visualization and practical measurements. From the problems on fertilizers the children learn to read fertilizer formulae and to find out what kind will bring the best results at the least cost. The problems that call for the cost of raising things give good training in bookkeeping, for accurate account is kept of the little things that a farmer seldom keeps on his book, such as the value of the child's time, pasturage and kitchen waste. It encourages the farmer to put all on a cost system, J. R. The American Schoolmaster, published by the Michigan State ISTormal College, at Ypsilanti, Michigan, is one of the best monthly magazines devoted to the professional aspects of teaching. It generally has three or more articles on live educational problems written by people who have worked on that line. The department, "From the Educational Field," gives short, concise expressions on vital questions. Some of these ques- tions discussed in the March, 1916, number are: "Government Aids in Home Making," "Practice Cottages for Home Economics," and "Cot- tages for Teachers." The editorial comment is live and interesting, such subjects as the "Teacher's Purpose" and "The Recitation's Worth" are discussed. Many of the best new books are reviewed and commented upon by men and women whose opinion holds weight. J. R. The Normal Instructor and Primary Plans, Dansville, New York, the monthly magazine for teachers of all grades, offers a variety of most practical help in each issue. It is truly a teacher's friend. It has much material that is so fully developed that the inexperienced teacher can readily use it. Whether the teacher wants devices full enough to follow exactly or mere suggestions from which she can make her own plans, she can get help here. In each issue there are articles on live topics of educational interest written by teachers and super\'isors actually in the work. Model lesson plans on language, nature study, and, in fact, all sub- jects are given with directions for carrying them out. Particularly valuable are the suggestions in every number for drawing lessons, sand- tables, and room decorations. Many of these have directions, illustra- tions, and pen pictures the right size to be transferred and used as they Reviews 59 are. Plans for teaching tlie great masterpieces of art are given, witli whole pages of small-sized reproductions to be cut out and used by each child on class. The music and dances published are particularly attrac- tive, with the actual music, and diagrams, and illustrations for the dances so they can be easily taught. Stories and story telling hold an important place. A department is given over to community work, and in each issue appropriate programs are given, so there is a variety to select from. The material is concrete for the carrying out of principles, yet you rarely find statements of principles themselves, because it is taken for granted that the teacher has sound ideas. It is of particular help to the inexperienced teacher who has a good set of principles, but has had little experience in expressing them in connected form. This furnishes devices for the carrying out of her ideas. The dream of one man, Mr. F. A. Owen, more than twenty-five years ago was of putting under one cover everything of a practical nature that could be used by all teachers of all grades in all schools. Mr. Owen had to work his way through school by hard work, chopping cord wood and doing other things of that nature. After he had left school he began publishing this magazine of his dreams in a one-room loft of a barn in Dansville, ISTew York. It has grown from its small beginning and has been moved repeatedly into bigger quarters until it now occupies a great daylight factory in which hundreds of people are employed. Its presses are of the finest and most modern. J. R. One day, as I wandered about upon the face of the earth, I came upon the brink of a great chasm, a gorge thousands of feet deep, so many miles long that the eye lost itself upon the rims as it sought the one end or the other, and it was many miles wide. But its depth brought its sides close to each other and the eye was deceived into thinking the gorge narrow. Seeing a trail leading down from the brink, I started down the cliffs. After many perils I found myself over 6,000 feet below the brink. Pass- ing by me, roaring and surging like fury, ran a large river. The roar was that of a thousand storms and the fury. Casting my eyes to Heaven I beheld the sun, the moon, and the stars. Then it was that my finite mind grasped a speck of the infinite and from the deep my soul mounted upon the wings of the morning and I came into the presence of God. Life is in the midst of a gorge with surging currents. There are cliffs upon cliffs, heights upon heights, steep upon steep for man to climb. Mount upward, O man, and never falter. Climb higher and higher, leaving the sultiy air of the gorge below and ever climb to brighter heights and purer air until you finally climb to the height He intended for you to reach. There you will find HIM. R. H. "Wright. Alumnae Annie Mae Hudson, '13, is at the Methodist Orphanage, Winston- Salem. This home is supported by the Conference of Western North Carolina. There are 135 children in the home, ten of whom are too small to attend school. Annie Mae has the first, second, and third grades in the Orphanage school, and says she is kept "awfully busy," but has no daily, monthly, or annual reports to make out ! And another thing about it, she does not have to worry her brain with a register, as others do. However, when a little "Bundle of Energy" catches measles or mumps, for instance, she has the nursing to do, and not of one child alone, but of every one under her care, for in a place of this kind when one child has a contagious disease, all try to have it. How would you like nursing your school children? Mary Newby White, '13, attended Mr. Meadows' address at the clos- ing exercises of the Sunbury School. Her little bunch of wrigglers and twisters at Tyner won the prize for improvement to school grounds and building, which amounted to a sum of twelve or more dollars, at the county commencement on March 31st. Three other prizes were also won by the Tynerites. Bettie Spencer, '15, Grimesland, Kate Tillery, '15, Ayden, and Luella Lancaster, '14, also of Grimesland, attended "Midsummer Night's Dream," in Greenville, April 10th. Sallie F. Jackson, '15, Pikeville, is principal of a two-teacher school eight miles from Pikeville. The school building is a very nice one, two rooms with folding doors between them. There is a good library ; in addition to this maps, globes, charts, new desks for teachers and pupils, and several good chairs have been lately purchased. Before the Christ- mas holidays the children and the teachers gave an entertainment in honor of the parents. On New Year's eve a box party and play were given at the school. Canning Clubs, Pig Clubs, and Corn Clubs have been keenly active from the first. Katie E. Sawyer, '15, is at Merritt, teaching first, second, and third grades. She lives in a teacher's cottage within thirty feet of her school- room. The principal and his family have the first floor, and Kate and the domestic science teacher occupy a suite of rooms upstairs and do light housekeeping. An effort is being made to locate a farm-life school here. The Betterment Association, of which Kate is president, has just Alumnae 61 placed over one hundred new desks in the school. Recently a play was given to raise money to defray the expense and $25 was realized. Kate says "We can and will" pay the remaining $294 by the time school closes. That sounds like business. Go to it! She took a trip to New Bern, March 23d, to see the wonderful "Birth of a Nation." Ethel Perry, '13, intermediate grades, Pikeville, attended Mabel Lucas's ('13) wedding to Mr. Herbert S^vain, in Plymouth, April 24. Grace Bishop Dew, '11, Wilson, 215 W, JSTash St., spent Easter in Greenville, with relatives. Millie Roebuck, '15, Stokes, principal of a two-teacher school at Mason, Pitt County, taught a successful Moonlight School. She also organized a literary society in her school, with the patrons as honorary members. Just before the holidays "Bird's Christmas Carol" was given for the benefit of the school. The community Sunday Schools and singing classes were heartily supported. Millie's school was out early, ^o she took a trip in April to Asheville, and from there to Hot Springs, Ark., to visit relatives. Mattie H. Bright, '14, Tarboro, R. F. D. No. 4, is now teaching at Leggett in No. 5 Consolidated School of Edgecombe County. There are four teachers in the school, one of whom is the music teacher. What easy work Mattie is having — only four grades ! Why can't she select a wider range of classes and get busy? But, then, athletics have been introduced into the school, and both boys and girls are very enthusiastic over the games, so perhaps they can keep her employed. The pupils go to school on wagons — some going a distance of five or six miles. They have heavy storm curtains for use in bad weather. The photographer took pictures of the building and wagons for exhibition not long ago. Willie Ragsdale, '12, and Blanche Lancaster, '14, were guests of honor at a reception in Smithfield. Tuesday evening, April 18th, when Mrs. T. J. Lassiter entertained. Margery Davis, '12, Tarboro, will change her address to Mrs. Carey Warren, Greenville, N. C, after June 1st. Ella May White, '15, Middletown, Lake Landing Graded School, first and second grades, is asistant in high school, also dra^^'ing in nine grades. This was the first attempt made by the school to install this subject as a part of the regular school course. Such splendid results were attained that much of the work was used in teachers' meetings. Every effort 62 TiiK Training School Qlarterly available has beeu employed to secure the cooperation of the patrons of the school. Every Friday afternoon a i)ublic entertainment is given at the school building, and every one is urged to attend. The material for these programs is taken from regular school work. The new piano in the school has nearly been paid for through proceeds received from parties and entertainments of various kinds. Already Ella has dis- covered the "all too sad fact that school teachers never, never get rich." Carrie Manning, '14, of Parinelo, who has been teaching in Granville County, says Mr. Wright's commencement address, March 30, was the best thing that took place in her school this year. The address was pre- ceded by a picnic dinner, after which there was an entertainment, the big numbers on the progi'am being three dramatizations : "Sleeping Beauty," by primary grades; "Diddie Dumps and Tot," by the inter- mediate grades, and "The Song of Hiawatha," by grammar grades. Carrie was in Greenville for "Midsummer Night's Dream." Pearle Brown, '15, Farmville, is still working faithfully to improve and beautify the school grounds in connection with her agricultural work. Gladys M. Fleming, '14, will not be able to attend commencement this year as George Peabody vacation does not begin until June 15th. Gladys's address is 1901 Adelicie St., Nashville, Temi. Georgia L, Scott, '12, Cockeysville, Md., is teaching first and second grades in the Cockeysville public school, Baltimore County. A good account of the splendid county school system was given not long since in the Atlantic Educational Journal. A priniary supervisor and assist- ant visit the school at least once each mouth, oftener if needed. Es- pecially is this helpful to the new teacher. The grammar grades also have supervisors and assistants. Four teachers' meetings or grade meetings are held each year. All the teachers of a certain grade meet one day, and carry with them samples of work, graphs made from tests given, lesson plans, and new ideas, all of which are discussed. This keeps the teacher up to date and enthusiastic about her work. This year Georgia, in company with a group of other second-grade teachers, visited the schools in Washington, D. C. The school law requires every teacher to attend teachers' institute two weeks every fall, or a course in summer school every three years. There is a truant officer for the county. The county commissioners meet the first Wednesday of every month to discuss school conditions, signing of checks for teachers, and other business. The work for the school year follows a course of study that is worked out by the supervisors. Monthly plans are worked out from this book, a copy of which is sent to each teacher in the county, Alumna 63 so all of the schools are teaching the same subjects for that mouth. Every summer the Cockeysville school takes part in the Chautauqua which is held there for several days. Georgia says the Quarterly is like an old friend to her, and she keeps in touch with the affairs of the school through it as a medium. Mary E. Weeks, '13, Graham, has only enrolled 94 boys and girls in the first grade this year. Can you imagine just how much time she has had for play! This up-to-date school was the first in the State to undertake the medical inspection the State Board wants done. Fewer defects were found here than in any other school in the county. The Graham boys basketball team beat the Burlington boys, 13 to 5, in a match game not long ago. Two Graham High School students won the cup at Chapel Hill in the debate this year. The ninth and tenth gi-ades gave an "at home" February 22d, in honor of the graded school teachers. The colonial idea was carried out in dress, amusements, and refreshments suggestive of Washington's birthday. Later the boys' literary society gave a party for the faculty. Mary spent Thanksgiving and Easter in Winston-Salem with her sister, Hattie. She made the trip each time through the country. Hattie missed a week or more from school on account of illness, and the school was afterwards closed for a week or more on account of scarlet fever. Lillie Freeman Hope, '13, Washington, and Master E. V. Hope, Jr., motored to Greenville recently with friends. Mrs. Hunter Fleming (Lillian Carr, '11), Kinston, and Mrs. Louis Gaylord (Mattie Moye King, '12), Plymouth, were in Greenville, April 28th, to attend a wedding. Lula Fountain, '14, Bethel, gave the "Tom Thumb Wedding," using her children as principal characters, on Febiniary 21st. Later she superintended a party at which good things to eat were sold, and $2Q was realized. She is another of those lucky people who 'heard Farrar sing in Raleigh this winter. Emma J. Brown, '15, Pleasant Hill, after completing her work in the public schools, taught several months private school in the home of one of the school committeemen, whom she says is "next best man to Mr. Wilson." Ha Bullock, '11, Lewiston, has won distinction in having made the highest average on entrance examinations to the High School Depart- ment in Bertie County. A new piano, auditorium chairs, lights, and new patent desks have been added to the school equipment this year. 64 The Training School Quarterly Bettie Pearl Fleming, '13, Dunn, had a pU'asing exhibition of the work done by her grade in the Dunn graded school building when the room was open for public inspection on Ajiril 21st. Bessie Doub, '14, Wendell, gave a very successful play festival Friday, April 28th. Louie Dell Pittman, '12, Selma, recently spent the week end in Ayden with licr sister, Mrs, Jake Frizzelle. Emily W. Gayle, '14, spent the Easter holidays in Grifton with friends. Nell Pender, '11, Greenville, is housekeeping for her father. She visited Essie Ellington Fleming, '11, in Rocky Mount, in March. But best thing can be said about her is that her address is still Xell Pender, Greenville. Lillie Tucker, '11, Winten'ille, visited relatives in Greenville and attended the Helen Keller address May 3d. Essie Ellington Fleming, '11, Rocky Mount, and Master Ernest I. Fleming, Jr., visited the latter's grandparents in Greenville during the first week of May. Maude Anderson, '15, Goldsboro, is teaching fourth, fifth, and sixth grades in Falling Creek High School, one of the three rural State high schools in the county of Wayne. A "Current Events Club" has been organized and proved very helpful. There are three basketball teams in the school. The moonlight school was very successful, and the pupils proved to be very appreciative. Tomato, Com, Pig, and Poultry clubs are in fine working order. The annual meeting of the Alumnse Association will be held at East Carolina Teachers Training School at 10 a. m. on Tuesday, June 6tli. The Alumupp Dinner will be hold in Dining Hall of the school at 8 p. m. on June 6th. Officers President Louise Smaw Vice-President Lela Durham Secretary Lida Taylor Treasurer Alma Spivey Critic Hattie Turner Historian Sallie Lassiter Class Adviser: Miss Daisy Bailey Waitt. Motto: Loyal in everything. Flower: Nasturtium. Psychological Soundings of Seniors The Class of 1916 is fortunate to exist in an age wlien it has been discovered that it is possible to look into and judge the future by present tendencies. Since we know that all classes are composed of psycho- physical organisms, we have only to judge the members according to psychology, or pedagogy, and see what each will naturally follow if left to go the way of least resistance. A complete psychological and pedagogical, not to say physiological, surv^ey has been made of the Class of 1916 and the results are given below. The number of principles applied can be tabulated according to the numbers given. 1. Since after a habit is formed it is hard to break, when women are allowed to vote, Lucile O'Brien's habit of holding office at school will lead her to a place of prominence. 2. If a quiet manner on the part of the teacher means good discipline, the schools cannot afford to give up Louise Stalvey. 3. If Allen Gardner follows the line of least resistance, whenever two or thi-ee of any kind are gathered together, she will continue to form organizations and associations. 4. If all knowledge is dependent upon imagination, then Selma Ed- monson has sufficient material to base a goodly store of knowledge on. 66 J" UK Training School Quarterly 5. Viola Gaskins has set up for her aim "to lielp Mr. Wilson solve the Farai Problem." Since he has helped her to know "how to study" a problem, we feel assured that she eaii organize the factors that help toward its solution, and that her judgment will lead her to success, 6. Mary Secrest's realization that the teaching process involves both child and subject-matter, added to her great love and knowledge of both, makes it her work to do all in her power to bring them into their i)roper relationship, 7. With Myra Fleming's well developed altruistic instinct, we predict for her a work in which a great supply of friends instead of money will be needed, 8. The three types of the expressive instinct, drawing and visual and auditory language, are prominent in the class: (a) Trilby Smith, by combining the teachings of the president of her school and her power to draw, will do well at designing more standard styles for women that would hold good for at least twelve years, (b) Georgia Keene's visual language has been so thoroughly trained by reporting for newspapers she would not do herself justice if she failed to continue to report whatever she sees and hears in the future. We are glad she is a truthful member of the class, and that "accuracy always'' is the motto of the aspiring young journalist, (c) There are two distinct methods of developing the auditory lan- guage presented by two members : (1) Alma Spivey, by much drill and by past experience, has speaking on the automatic basis and will find the lecture method of teaching best suited for her. (2) On the other hand, this instinct has been so long suppressed by Ava Graver we feel sure it must come forth some day. We cannot create any image of the results as we cannot reach the mind to 5ee what Ava is quietly collecting therein ; nor does she give us any basis for imagining what stimuli will call forth the rich store. 9. Katherine Parker's ample proportions and rosy cheeks tell us that she has developed the feeding instinct upon a scientific basis, and we are thankful for her good nature that will necessitate her sharing this knowl- edge with others by teaching domestic science. We are glad to assure her that she needs no further advertisement than her own looks. 10. If idealistic imitation and deep interest are guides, Louise Smaw will follow the footsteps of her primary methods or geography teacher. 11. Martha Lancaster, her classmates say, has so many lines of non- resistance it is difficult to predict which she will follow. At present it seems as if the road leading to playground work and public school music is the most obvious way. 12. If nothing prevents, the hereditary tendencies of Eimice Vause will, in time, lead her to Ireland, especially if continually stimulated by the praise of those ancestors by her history teacher. Class ok 1916 67 13. Is it the love of approbation that keeps Fannie Lee Patrick con- tinually arranging her curly locks and keeping her dimples in place? If so, success must come from such a frequent repetition, and our ques- tion is, "Whose approval does she desire," 14. Naomi Dail has, up to this time, been constructing ideas carefully and considerately in her quiet way. She has not even dropped a hint as to how she shall use them, and she thereby holds our interest by suspense. 15. Anna Whitehurst's recreation tells us what she wishes to become. Pier enjoyment of her rhythmical and graceful dancing makes us hope that she'll teach others such valuable recreation. 16. The rhythmic and aesthetic instincts are too prominent and the appeal too great for Gladys Warren to refuse her place among musicians. This is portrayed by Gladys's warning word, "Listen," at every sound of music. 17. Marguerite Wallace's musical power and her general leadership fit her for the position of musical director. 18. If the experienced teacher is still in demand, Lalla Wynne has the advantage of valuable experience in the first grade. Jobs should be hers even before the asking. 19. Marjorie Pratt has practiced story-telling so much and so well that we hope she will turn this evil habit to good by adapting and using these stories where they will be of benefit to teachers and children. 20. We are glad to have one person in which the collecting instinct is prominent, and accompanied by the love of wi'iting, and we would be glad to get a book entitled "Julia Eankin's collections." 21. For yet another we advise music — Janet Matthews' love for the beautiful and her skill in playing fit her for a music teacher. She proves that a person does not have to be large to bring big tones from a piano. 22. We advise Gertrude Boney, with her well developed morals and high standards of right, to set these standards constantly before the people, perhaps, as a Y. W. C. A. worker, or as a teacher. 23. While taking the part of a lion in "Midsummer Night's Dream," Bloomer Vaughan displayed such a gentle and conscientious nature that we advise her to do something better suited to her gentleness, and not continue telling stories with Marjorie Pratt. But a mighty good Brer Rabbit will be lost. 24. If it is possible for the study of a country to create a desire to visit that country, Sophia Mann will lead a group of the third grade from the model school to Japan. With her love for roaming we cannot say where her wanderings will finally end. 25. Lida Taylor's nature also was revealed during "Midsummer Night's Dream." She proved to us when playing "Puck" that she could never be pessimistic, but happy and joyous at all times. What better 68 The Training School Quarterly traits could we desire to be taken into a community for developing tlie true community spirit ? She expresses one play instinct. 26. The play instinct is developed along still another line. Ella Bonner shows tendencies toward combining work and play, thus having the ideal conditions for work. Whether her school be a one-teacher or college, it will stand out prominently because of its playground achieve- ments. 27. A study of morals is portrayed in Dinabel Floyd's faithfulness to small things. We turn kindergartens over to her. 28. According to Elizabeth Southerland's expressed wish, her love for amusement and dance, and her pretended dislike for cares and serious- ness, there could be but one life for her, the society life. However, according to our own acquaintance with Elizabeth, we know she would be far happier in helping others, perhaps in directing amusements and pastimes for others, coaching plays, for instance. 29. Hattie Turner's curiosity decides her course. It has kept her in the library at play time and work time, deafening her to the sounds of bells, but has ended by giving her a power in the library that will fit her for the work she'll like, a librarian. We hope she will awaken the public schools of N'orth Carolina to see the true values of libraries. 30. With Mary Smith's desire to sing and be merry we could wish nothing better for her than that the public will appreciate her voice as much as her voice teacher does. 31. There seems but one course for Susie Morgan to pursue that will give her powers full play. Her own expressed desires to become a mov- ing picture actress and writer of scenarios go hand in hand with her love for dramatics and quick movements. 32. Dramatics should guide Alice Herring to direct others along that line or to the further development of herself. But to Alice all roads seem open. She will be the well-rounded woman whatever she does. 33. Voluntary imitation is perhaps the cause of Lola Brinson's habit- ual neatness. Whatever the cause, we hope she will lead others to imitate her. There is a great work for her in teaching people to use such designs as Trilby is to provide. 34. Was it her course in home nursing here that aroused the sympa- ties of Katherine White and directed her thoughts toward becoming a trained nurse? 35. Jessie Daniel judges from her observation that there is a great need for better "Math" teaching, and has begun hor work by coaching less fortunate classmates. With such a beginning, Avho can tell where it will end? 36. Annie Bishop, on the other hand, has felt this need for "Math" teaching, by past experience, and says it is vital enough to her to assure her aid in securing as great a power in the subject as her now more fortunate classmate. Class of 1916 69 37. With her great feeling for history, Sallie Lassiter cannot see it taught in the future as in the past, as a dead, lifeless subject. Her love for it, and her wit, will make the subject real and live to her pupils as together they connect the old with the new. 38. The pedagogy of jSTelle White's interest must be either based on environment or the recapitulation theory, and since environment has more certain and unchangeable effects we know that it is the power at work here. ISTelle delights in the sports that water can afford and wishes to teach others the pleasures of swimm.ing and rowing. 39. Susie Barnes has numerous qualities that fit her for her preferred work of training orphan classes. Her warm heart, deep sympathy, cheerful, bright disposition, and desire to teach are all to her credit. 40. J^ellie Dunn's individual notions are unnumbered. We hope that memory will continue to retain them all until she is ready to found her general notions. If so, her store cannot be surpassed by any of her classmates. 41. To see Jessamine Ashley cling to her broom and dustpan, and to know the energy and time she gives to making her room a pleasing per- spective is proof enough that Jessamine wants to be a teacher of good housekeeping. 42. Does the natural way in which Euth Brown has once acted the part as leader of revels mean that it will continue to be so natural? 43. Is it curiosity that leads Eva Pridgen to ponder the "Why" o£ facts ? We learn that the psychological way to study is to get the mean- ing of statements instead of bare facts. Then why does this not mean that Eva Pridgen will get something that is really worth while from her loved subject, chemistry. 44. Pedagogy teaches us that all questions are valuable except the suggestive questions. We are inclined to think that Ruby Vann is soon going to attach an importance to that unpedagogical kind, the "yes" or "no" question. Prom the above characterization one cannot help noticing the striking individuality of the girls. jSTo two are alike. Each stands out indi- vidually, seeming to make a disunited class; but no. There is a tie that binds. One instinct is common to them all, and is developed as unitedly as in one individual. This is the social instinct. It creates that strong desire "to serve." It unites them all in a bond that is "Loyal in everything." It ties them to their school and to each other, and, though soon to be separated and follow their own individual paths, we see them often guided by their common instinct, back to one general path leading to their own Alma Mater. Martha Lancaster. 70 The Training School Quarterly Senior Slips L. T. : "Who wrote Dr. Strayer ?" S. M. (at drug store) : "Please fill this subscription." M, S. : "I have just had such a fuuny letter from my sister and she sent me some bobs" (meaning chewing gum). ]Sr. W. : "Where do you wear them ?" Miss L. : "In drawing Japanese parasols, what principle do we stress ?" G. W. : "The eclipse/' L. T, (to merchant) : "Have you any variated ties?" E. S. (to E. B.) : "Please lend me some divisible hairpins." L. W. (in Science) : "Has that soil got any 'humorous' in it?" Mr. M.: "What is a ditty?" Miss S. : "Oh, its a herring." A. S. made a poster to use in illustrating her reading lesson. Wishing the approval of the critic-teacher she said, "Miss M., how does my postal look?" "Miss K., will you scan the first stanza?" Miss K. began rattling off the lines by heart, and was later shocked when she found scanning and memorizing were not synonymous. Marguerite Wallace. Class of 1916 71 Pictures and Quotations. Louise Shaw — "True she is, as she hath proved herself." Lela Durham — "Of good repute, carriage, bearing, and estimation." LiDA Taylor — "To me, fair friend, you never -wiW grow old." Alma Spivey — "I do profess to be no less than I seem." Susie Morgan — "All the world is a stage and the men and women merely players." Mary Smith — "Ho.y, fair, and wise is she." Jessamine Ashley — "Ask me what you will, I will grant it." Annie Bishoi — "I of him -will gather patience." Mar(Rieritk W.Ki.UMK — ''She excels each mortal thing upon this dull earth dwelling." Lalla Wynne — "All that life can rate worth name of life, in thee hath estimate." DiNABEL Floyd — "The truth, sir, and she is pretty, and honest, and sentle ; and one that is your friend." Sophia Mann — "Her voice was ever soft, gentle, and low; an excellent thing in a woman." 72 TiiK I'kaimm; Sciiooi. (Jiaktkui.y Rl'TH Hkowx — "I liiul latluT have a fool to make inc merry than expeiieiiee to make me sad." Nellk \Vhitk — "Thou liai-t the sweetes-t face I ever looked on." Geori;i.\ Kkkxe — "Your face . . . . i.s a book where men may read strange matters." Myka Fle.mixi; — "How far that little candle throws its beam.s! So shines a good deed in a naughtv world." H.\TTIK TiRXKR — "I would rather hear my dot; bark at a crow than a man swear he loves im LoL.\ Brix.-;ox — "The course of true love never did run smooth." Lucille O'Briak — "She is fair and fairer than that word, of wondrous virtue." Faxxie Lee P.vtruk — "The worst fault you have is to be in love." Viola Gaskix.s — "So turns the every man the wrong side out." Eunice Vause — "He that is thy friend indeed, He will help thee in thy need." Bloomer Vaughx — "You are full of pretty answers." JES.SIE Daniel — "As I have ever found thee, honest — true. ' ( 'l.ASS ()!■■ Ill Hi 73 Alice Herrinc — ''Titled goddess and worth it with addition." Mary Skckest — "Thou hast a mind that suit with this, thy fair and outward cliaracter." AvA Graver — ^"I know not what the success will be, my lord, but the attempt I avow.'' Elizabeth Southerland — "She's a fair creature." Sallie Lassiter — ''Beshrew my heart, but I pity the man.'' Marth.^ Lancaster — "Yes, I do know him well, and common speech gives him a worthy name." Louise Stalvey — "A kind overflow of kindness.'' Eva Pridgen — ''She never knew harm doing." W^ I «i Mm 2a£?.?33« 7mm^4.'":'*-&if\ Nell Dl'X.N" — "lie jest.- at scar.s tliat never fell a wound.' Selma Edml'Ndsox — "Loving goes by hopes; some cupid kills witli arrows, some with tropes." CtLAUYS Warrkx — "Beauty and honor in her are so mingled." Trilhv Smith — "I count m.x'.se'.f in notliini;- so happy, as in a soul remembering my good friends." - r 7+ TlIK ri!AlM.\(; Scilool. (^)rAlI TKIil.V Ruby Vaxx — ''Good words are better tlian bad stroke!-. '" Katherixe Parker — "Tliere is notliins I liave done yet o' my conscience deserves a corner.' Julia Rakkin — "Tlie honor of a maid is Iht n.nnc. .iinl no l("_';iiy is >o rich as honesty." Katherine White — "Do you not know I am a woman ; When I think I must speak." Anna WiriTKJirRST — "For slie tliat liad all the fair ])arts of woman, had. too. a woman' lieai't." Marjorik Pratt — "Whose nature is so far from doing harm that he suspects none." K.\o.Ml Dail — "I love not many words." Allen Gardner — "There you shall see a countrxnian of \ours that has done worthy service.' Gertrude Boney — "The most virtuous gentlewoman tliat ever Nature had pi-aise for creatine Susie Barnes — "She is never sad but when she .sleeps." Ella Bonner — "Young in limbs, in .iudgment old." Janet Matthews — "If music be the food of love, play on." Class of 1916 75 Chronicles of the Class of 1916 E, the Class of 1916, who are about to complete our school career at East Carolina Teachers Training School, feel that we should leave a complete record of all our deeds before going hence. The Quar- terly is the treasure house for all the archives of the school; hence this seems the best place for filing these records. Miss Waitt has been our faithful class adviser for all four years. Today, the class has forty- nine members standing together, with Louise Smaw as President; Lela Durham, Vice-President; Lida Taylor, Secretary; Alma Spivey, Treas- urer; Hattie Turner, Critic, and Sallie Lassiter, Historian. The Class of 1916 was organized ]^ovember, 1912. We then had thirty-two members. At first we felt weak, as we were all young, and we were the smallest class here, but it was not long before we fell in line and went to work with determination to succeed in school activities. We did not accomplish very much in comparison with what the upper classes were doing. But we did organize our class and soon had a basketball team and tennis team. We enjoyed watching other classes that were older and more experienced than we, and taking lessons to put into practice later. In the fall of 1913 we were ready for work. Our number was in- creased to forty-four, with Gladys Warren, President; Nellie Dunn, Vice-President; Martha Lancaster, Secretary; Clyde Eeid, Treasurer, and Elsie Brantley, Council Member. We started to work. We played a match game of basketball with the Juniors on Thanksgiving. We were the first and only "B" class that has played in a match game of basket- ball in this school. As we knew how to sympathize with the "A" class we decided to en- tertain them just before commencement, and welcome them to our place in the school as "B's." The entertainment was of a very informal nature. We first played games, such as Virginia Eeel, Cross-Question, etc. Then a contest was held, the prize being a bottle of honey from the "Busy Bees." This was won by Hallie Jones, of the "A" class. Later refreshments were served. When we returned in the fall of 1915 nearly every new girl we met said she was going to be in the Junior Class. We found we had ninety-six members, the largest class that has ever been in this school. Two large sections of Juniors, with Alice Herring, President; Eunice Vause, Vice- President; Jessie Daniels, Secretary; Nellie Dunn, Treasurer; Julia Eankin, Critic; Trilby Smith and Susie Morgan, Council Members. 76 Thk Training School Quaktkrly As this wa^ our first year as a member of one of the professional classes, we entered into our work with a great cleul of interest and enthusiasm. We played in the basketball tournament and lost to the Seniors. Still we did not give up, and when the time came for the tennis tournament we won all three games. Two members of our class, Lucile O'Brian and Allen Gardner, were the champions in tennis. A member of our class, Lillian Page, was the champion walker of the school. As a result of all this we won the Athletic Loving Cup, wliich is given for the most points in all forms of athletics except basketball. As it is a custom for the Juniors to entertain the Seniors, we decided to give them a Japanese party out on the campus, but on account of the critical condi- tion of Governor Jarvis we were delayed in our plans, and finally gave up the idea of doing this. We gave, instead, a reception indoors during the last week of school. This year of our Lord 1916 has been a busy year with us, and this is the first chance we have had to glance back over the past and see what Ave really have done. The first thing we did after we had settled down was to organize our- selves into a Story-Telling League. As many as four girls have told stories every Saturday afternoon to the children of Greenville, at the public library. At the head of this league there is a committee com- posed of Georgie Keene, Chainuan ; Alma Spivey, and Bloomer Vaughan. On the day which had been proclaimed as "Moonlight School Day" by the Governor, a j)rogram was given by the following members of our class: Mary Secrest, Eunice Yause, Alma Spivey, and Sallie Lassiter. A playground demonstration was given by our class to the Pitt County schools. All the games played were suitable for primary and grammar grades. During a school year each class is supposed to conduct the Assembly exercises, so we decided to use Lincoln's birthday for our date. Nellie Dunn, Susie Barnes, Gladys Warren, Janet Matthews, Bloomer Vaughan, Alice Herring, and Georgie Keene took a prominent part in this program, with songs by the class appropriate for the date. It has been the custom since 1913 for each Senior Class to plant some tree on the campus. This year, instead of just giving one or two trees, we decided to plant sixteen Lombardy poplar trees, which will always be a symbol of the class of 1916. What we consider the greatest and most important thing we have ever done was to present to the public on April 10th "A Midsummer Night's Dream." This is given in detail under another head in this issue of the Quarterly. On the night of April 14th we were given a reception by our President and his wife, Mr. Wright and Mrs. Wright. This reception is always one of the Seniors' most enjoyable events of the year. Another enjoy- able event was a reception given by the Juniors on May 8th, in honor of the Seniors. Class of 1916 77 All tlie above events may seem small, but with these and our work and our practice teaching at the Model School wc have spent a very busy four years. Those who can read between the lines can understand the amount of work, the joy, the hopes and fears of all these years, and the triumphant feeling we have at the end that the authorities are ready to bestow upon us the concrete evidence of "Well done, good and faithful servants," diplomas duly signed and sealed. Sallie Lassiter, Historian. Prospective vs. Actual Teachers SCENE I. Rising Action. Place : Primary Methods Classroom, East Carolina Teachers Train- ing School, Greenville, IST. C. Date: October 1, 1915. Personnel : Miss B, Director of Practice Teaching at Model School. Enthusiastic Seniors, starting out on their brilliant career of teaching. Miss B. : "Now, girls, as you all know, teaching is an eternal joy, a daily inspiration. You are starting out on your teaching career with a sufficient amount of past experience to enable you to carry out these suggestions : "In your teaching follow these instructions in Pedagogy: (1) "Aim, supplementing, organization, judging, comparison, getting and using of ideas. (2) "Get the child's knowledge on a 'Habit Basis.' (3) "Give children opportunities for free expression of their thoughts, (4) "Show pupils that you have confidence in them and trust them. "Then heed the advice in History, which is : The teacher's knowledge should always exceed that of the pupil's. Kemember these helpful precepts in Geography: (1) "Be sure your pupils always have a clear conception of ideas. (2) "Train your pupils to say exactly what they mean. "■Don't forget the Grand Opera Training you got in singing, such as : (1) "Teacher should always start the song right the first time. (2) "Give songs that correspond with the time of the year. (3) "Make your songs real. "Last, but not least, follow these few suggestions which I have to offer: (1) "Learn your children and their different instincts and notice par- ticularly the dramatic instinct and use it whenever possible. (2) "Notice the imitative instinct in regard to the English you use. (3) "Throw in plenty of rest periods which are full of action. 78 The Training School Quarterly (4) ''Never, never fail to see where work can be correlated and where past expcM-ieiices must be called up. "We Avill now go to our respective grades and get down to hard work." (Girls depart, talking and excited, all anxious to get to the Model School.) SCENE II. Action in Full Sway. Place: Model School, Time : 9 a. m., two weeks later. Air full of excitement. Shuffling of lesson plans from critic-teacher to pupil-teacher. Sweet and melodious music can be heard in different rooms furnished by the trembling knees of the pupil-teachers, which are playing "I Need Thee Every Hour." Strange sounds can be heard from the basement, which might be alarming if one didn't know it was nothing but different girls teaching their lessons to the four comers of the room. Passing from room to room one can hear these remarks : Pupil-Teacher (to pupils finishing Reading lesson) : "Now, children, please put your hooks in your seat and your head in your desk." (Prin- ciple: train your pupils always to say exactly what they mean.) P.-T.: "What is an ocean?" Walter : "A great big hole of water." (Principle : clear conception of ideas.) P.-T. (who had taught maps for two weeks) : "Children, what is our reading lesson about today?" Chorus: "Maps.'- (Principle: habit basis.) P.-T. (day after circus) : "Children, I want each of you to tell me something you saw at the circus. John, you may begin" — and John talked the entire period. (Principle: development of free expression.) Jack (to pupil-teacher) : "Miss , I'll always remember you." P.-T.: "Why?" Jack: "Because you look just like a Japan." (Teacher had just finished working out a Japanese pageant.) (Principle: association.) P.-T. (after having written the words on the board) : "Get out your spelling pads and I will trust you not to look at the board during this," (While teacher was talking she unconsciously rubbed the words off,) (Principle: trust your pupils.) P,-T, (during a reading lesson) : "What does persuaded mean?" Pupil : "Like the people did at the camp meeting this summer, when they sang "Almost Persuaded." (Principle: association.) P.-T, (teaching geography) : "William, did you visit the Insane Asylum when you were in Raleigh ?" William : "Yes." P.-T. : "Tell us what you saw." William: "A lot of women," Class of 1916 79 Charles (after Japanese pageant) : "Miss , don't you think our pageant was good enough for Mr. Sam White to put on the picture screen ?" P.-T. (teaching Marquette) : "Marquette was one of the first white men to come to this country." Pupil : "Didn't John Smith come before he did ?" Teacher (turning red): "I don't know." (Principle: teacher'3 knowledge should exceed that of the pupil.) SCENE III. Falling Action. Place : Same as Scene I. Time : 11 :45, one week later. Downcast Seniors, ready to end life, some gazing at the electric light bulbs, some at the blackboard, some looking at the scenery out the window, all avoiding the teacher's eye. Miss B. : "Of course, girls, we all got on nicely with our work, but — " Exclamations from girls : "Oh, Miss B., I've failed." "I'll never be able to teach!" "I don't love children." "I can't put into practice the things I learn up here." "I'm a perfect bone-head." "I believe teaching one large one is better than thirty-six small ones." "I can't teach sing- ing without a 'pitch pipe.' " Miss B. : "Never mind, we all make mistakes. Now let's talk over our mistakes and see where we can correct them, for you know our fail- ures may be turned into successes." Girls (greatly relieved) : "Please give us another chance and we will do better." n.-r -nr .^^ Marguerite Wallace. LiDA Taylor. Susie T. Morgajst. Learning to Teach Music Just as the girls did their practice teaching at the Model School, just so did the girls who were taking music do their practice teaching in music. Before a professional student is allowed to take music, she must have to her credit a certain amount of work in music, and is required to continue it until she completes the course in music. This makes music equal to the other subjects in the course. Each student-teacher of music teaches one pupil for one term. A part of the teaching is done under the supervision of the critic-teacher, and the other part of the teaching the practice teachers are thrown on their own responsibility. One of the regular music lessons each week is devoted to a discussion of plans for teaching the lesson and the progress of the pupil. Eor the first two or three lessons the plans are submitted to the teacher's criticism. After that the practice teachers 80 The Training School Quakteelt not only make their own plans, but also criticize them. The other lesson in each week is devoted to the student-teacher's actual technical work in music. Just as you have problems to face and solve in actual teaching, just so you have them in teaching music. One of the greatest problems that confronts a music teacher is how to induce a child to practice. Often the child comes to his lesson and announces the fact that his practice period has been only one-half hour since the previous lesson ; and when this confession is not made the music lessons show that conditions are even worse. Then the perplexed teacher suddenly finds herself trying to answer the question, "How shall I motivate the practicing of this child?" The teacher gives the pupil suggestions as to the best hours for practice, and tries to lead the child to see the importance of practicing by hammering in him concrete illustrations. The student-teacher leads the child to see that even in the case of a baseball or basketball player, an unlimited amount of practice is necessary, in order that the player may accomplish anything. One student-teacher was half amused, half vexed, one day when her pupil told her that his only reason for practic- ing was to become "so skilled" that he could play in an orchestra the next summer. She readily saw that her ways of motivation had not been alive to the child. In trying to get a good hand position on the piano, the pupil's fingers can be compared with "little soldiers." A music teacher must remember that she should use little devices to illustrate to the pupil what she wants him to get; these should appeal to the nature and age of the child; whether her pupil is a boy or a girl determines the nature of the de- vices used. If there is one single thing to be .stressed in teaching music, especially with a beginner, it is to make music mean something to the child. So many music teachers think that the technical side of music should be the foremost thought in teaching it. Not so, for unless a child really gets some thought or meaning from his music (as in reading or any subject) he will never reach the point of real appreciation of music. From ob- servation, student-teachers have learned that even the youngest pujnl has some power of interpretation. One of the student-teachers asked her pupil what he thought was meant by the piece "Merry Bobolink." The pupil said it was written about the bird, bobolink, and he even selected the measures that to him said "spink, spank, spink." This shows that music can be made to mean something to the child, even in the case of an easy composition. The teacher found that she should, in the beginning, try to train the pupil's ear to distinguish between harsh and mellow tones. By striking one or two notes with a difference in their tones, she let the pupil detect the mellow tones; especially did she stress this in scale work. One of Class of 1916 81 the pupils suggested one day that ''good tones sounded like they were struck by clean-kept finger^." One other thing this student-teacher discovered was that recitals furnish good motives for children to put forth effort in their music; generally they think it great to take part in a program, and will double their efforts if given such an opportunity. Memory work in music is an important phase of the work, and should be heartily encouraged by the teacher. One child motivated memory work herself when she told the following incident to her teacher. She was asked to play for her mother's guest one day, and didn't have her music with her, so she played one piece from memory. When she had finished telling her teacher about it, she said, "ISTow, see if I hadn't known that piece by heart, I couldn't have played for those folks." After a child has memorized a piece it means so much more to him, and his music becomes a pleasure instead of a burden. It is hoped that the above experiences and discoveries of the student- teachers may serve as a sympathetic word to the young teacher who has similar problems to solve. -r ,^ Janet Matthews. Gladys Warren. Senior Luncheon The climax of the year's work in the cooking class comes in the last term when the Seniors give a series of luncheons, which are a test of what they have assimilated during the year. The class, which this year numbers forty-eight, is divided into groups of three, making sixteen groups. Each group is required to plan, pre- pare, and serve a full meal for six people at a cost of $1.25. The plan- ning of the meal gives an opportunity to each student for judging food values, cost of articles, and time for preparation. The students keep a market price list and are required to work out the cost of each recipe. When they begin adding it up, to their surprise it always amounts to more than the allowance. It is positively painful to some girls when they have to reject attractive recipes and select less expensive ones. These menus, with calculations of time for preparation and cost, are presented to the teacher, she approves or disapproves and gives the allowance of money. They take this and go to the local stores to pur- chase their materials at retail price, just as any housekeeper does. The clerks often smile when they ask for 2 cents worth of nuts, 5 cents worth of tomatoes and 5 cents worth of potatoes, and so on. In order to give the students practice in preparing and serving meals before they give their meals to guests, the cla^s cooks and serves three type meals — breakfast, luncheon, and dinner. In this work the class is divided into three groups, and one group cooks the meal, another group sets the table and serves, while the other group is acting as the guests. 82 Tjie TkaiiNINo School Quarterly This is rotated during the three type meals, in this way each member gets practice in every phase of the work. There is much rivalry between the groups as to the attractiveness of their meals. Some of them search in the woods for various kinds of flowers, as dogwood, yellow jessamine, honeysuckle and woodbine, while others use the flowers on the campus — sweet peas, roses, tulips, nastur- tiums, buttercups, and others. Each group tries to get something differ- ent. Many of the place cards are made to harmonize with the flowers used in the center of table. Some of them are conventional designs, and others the natural form of the flower painted on the cards. After everything has been prepared and the guests have arrived, one of the girls presides at the table, another serves, while the third one remains in the kitchen to dish up the food and have it ready. In the meantime the hostess is striving to keep up a live and interesting con- versation. Her chief ambition is to be natural, and her greatest fear is that things will appear stiff, but the guests always enjoy these meals. The guests are members of the faculty, friends in town and members from some other classes. In this work the girls learn many principles of housekeeping. Food values, best methods of marketing, preparation of foods, table require- ments, details of serving and general care of kitchen and dining-room are topics which receive special attention. The Senior Class this year served their luncheons in the hall of the Domestic Science laboratory. They have been served heretofore in the Cabin, but while the Cabin is picturesque and has been the scene of many attractive luncheons, the Domestic Science room is much more convenient in every respect. Given below are some typical menus: BREAKFAST. Post Toasties Strawberries Chicken Gravy Rice Sally Lunn Muffin s Coffee LUNCHEON. Asparagus Soup Crackers Baked Fish Cornbread Boiled C; abbage Rice Tomatoes Mayonnaise Ice Tea Lemon Cream Wafers DINNER. Strawberries Baked Chicken Gravy Creamed Potatoes Parker House Rolls Fruit Salad Butter Saltines Vanilla Ice-cream Sponge Cake Kathkrine Parker. Class of 1916 83 Senior Play On the evening of April 10th the Senior Class presented "A Mid- summer Night's Dream." Miss Daisy Bailey Waitt, adviser of the class, was director of the play, and not only did all the coaching, but Avas at the head of all the other work. Miss Louise Smaw, as president of the class, was an ex ojficio member of all committees, and helped to keep everything working harmoniously. Mendelssohn's "Midsummer Night's Dream" music was used through- out the play. Miss Sherman played all the incidental music, the music for the dances, and "The Scherzo." Miss Fahnestock played the "Over- ture," "The Nocturne," "The Wedding March," and "Intermezzo." Three members of the Hagedorn orchestra, of Kaleigh, helped with the music. Mr. Koyster played the cello, Mr. Smith the violin, and Mr. Weatherall the flute. Miss Muffly directed the choruses. The interpre- tative dances added greatly to the beauty of the play. These were the faun dance, the fairy dances and the tree-heart dance. The clown dance was one of the best things in the play. The clown dance was directed by Miss Muffly. Miss Euth Lee, of Kaleigh, trained the others. The scenery used was that which was presented to the school by the Class of 1914, a Greek interior and a wood scene, which were ideal for the play. This was supplemented by vines, trees and bowers artistically arranged. The staging committee was : Eunice Vause, chairman ; Louise Stalvey, Alma Spivey, Katherine White. Misses Graham, Strong, and Morris of the faculty worked with this committee and rendered valuable service to the class through their helpful advice. Costumes for the principals were rented from a professional costumer. Most of the costumes were designed and made under the direction of Miss Martha Armstrong, teacher of Domestic Science. Members of the class on the Costume Committee were: Dinabel Floyd, chairman; Anna Whitehurst, Myra Fleming. Miss Annie McCowen rendered valuable service to this committee in helping to make the costumes. Each member of the class made an attractive poster under the direc- tion of Miss Kate Lewis, teacher of drawing. The poster committee was : Lalla Wynne, chairman. Trilby Smith, Hattie Turner. The posters were turned over to the advertising committee, which had charge of all printing and publicity work. The members of this committee were: Georgia Keene, chairman; Jessie Daniel. Lela Durham. They worked under the direction of Miss Jenkins, of the English department. The marshals for the play were : Julia Rankin, chief ; Trilby Smith, Nell Dunn, Louise Stalvey, Ella Bonner, Lucilc O'Brian, Nelle White, Sophia Mann. Louise Smaw, president of the class, and Georgia Keene, chairman of ad-\'ei"tising committee, sold tickets. 84 The Training School Quarterly The satisfaction of the public and the favorable opinions expressed were very gratif^ang to the class. The cast of characters was as follows : Theseus, Duke of Athens Martha Lancaster Egeus, father to Hermia Gertrude Boney Lysander, betrothed to Hermia Lola Brinson Demetrius, once suitor to Helena, now in love with Hermia.. ..Susie Barnes Philostrate, master of revels to Theseus Ruth Brown Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons, betrothed to Theseus Sallie Lassiter Hermia, daughter to Egeus, betrothed to Lysander Alice Herring Helena, in love with Demetrius Gladys Warren Mechanics performing in the interlude: Quince, a carpenter Katharine Parker Bottom, a weaver Susie Morgan Flute, a bellows-mender Allen Gardner Snout, a tinker Mary Smith Snug, a joiner Bloomer Vaughan Starveling, a tailor Jessie Daniel Oberon, King of the Fairies Marguerite Wallace Titania, Queen of the Fairies Elizabeth Southerland Puck, or Robin Goodfellow Lida Taylor Attendant Fairies: Lucile O'Brian, Selma Edmundson; Tree hearts: Louise Smaw, Louise Stalvey, Nellie Dunn, Ella Bonner, Georgia Keene. Peaseblossom Mary Moye Carper Cobweb Mary Wright Mustardseed Fannie Green Allen Moth Mary Lee Pittman Other Fairies: Martha Moye, Elizabeth Austin, Jane Hadley, Mary Forbes, Frances Porter. Louise Phelps, Virginia Perkins, Hester Phelps, EfBe May W^inslow, Edna Davenport, Lela Davenport, Frances Norman, Huldah Albrit- ton, Elizabeth Harrington, Mary Moye Savage, Florence Overton. Child stolen from Indian king Fred Forbes Attendants on Theseus and Hippolyta: Anna Whitehurst, Fannie Lee Pat- rick, Lela Durham, Ruby Vann, Lalla Wynne, Eunice Vause, Alma Spivey, Viola Gaskins, Eva Pridgen. Torch-bearers: Janet Matthews, Mary Secrest, Trilby Smith, Myra Fleming. Chorus: Members of the cast and Julia Rankin, Katherine White. Hattie Turner, Nelle White, Marjorie Pratt, Naomi Dail. Dinabel Floyd, Ava Craver. Jessamine Ashley, Fannie Bishop, Sophia Mann. Georgia Keene. Reception to Seniors The reception of President and Mrs. R. H. Wright to the Senior Class of the Training School on the evening of April 17th from 9 to 11. o'clock was the most brilliant school social event of the year. The parlor, dining room, library, study and hall were thrown into one and beautifully decorated in school colors, purple and gold, irises, violets and jonquils being the flowers used to carry out the color scheme. In the receiving line were Mi's. Wright and President Wright, Mrs. Clara Davis, Miss Daisy Bailey Waitt, adviser for the Senior Class, Mrs. Beckwith, Lady Principal, and Mrs. Louis Wilson, of Chapel Hill, sister of President Wright. Class of 1916 85 As the guests entered Master William Wright received the cards at the door; Misses Sallie Joyner Davis and Kate Lewis received the guests in the front hall; little Miss Mary Wright directed them to the dressing room ; Miss Mamie E, Jenkins introduced them to the line ; Miss Helen Strong directed them to the punch bowl in the rear of the hall, where Misses Maria Graham and Ola Ross presided at the punch bowl, which was artistically arranged in a setting of violets and smilax. After the guests had all arrived they were seated at tables and the game of rook was the entertainment of the evening, Mrs. Nannie F. Jeter assisted with the twelve tables of rook. As the players progressed or went down there was much laughter and fun. During the evening Miss Lillian Parker sang beautifully several solos, and Misses Sherman and Fahnestock played lovely duets. When the games were stopped delicious refreshments were served. The guests were the forty-nine young ladies of the Senior Class, mem- bers of the faculty and all connected with the school, and a member of the Board of Trustees, Mr. F. C. Harding, and Mrs. Harding. The annual reception given to the Senior Class by the President and his wife is always looked forward to as the crowning event of the social life in the Training School girl's life. The reception was one of the most enjoyable and one of the most beautiful in the series of receptions given by them to the graduating classes. — Greenville Reflector, April 18. School Activities Societies Presidents of Societies. Edgar Allan Poe. Sidney Lanier. Nannie Mac. Brown. Ophelia O'Brian. Commencement Maushals. Chief: Juanita Weedon, Edgar Allan Poe Society. ASSISTANTS. Poe Society. Lanier Society. Jessie Bishop. EfRe Baugham. Nannie Mac. Brown. Julia Elliott. Lucille Bullock. Christine Overman. Helen Gardner. Virginia Sledge. The societies have devoted their energies this spring to the question of planting the front campus. This is given in full in another part of this issue of the Quarterly. Classes The Junior Class of the Training School at assembly period on Wednes- day and Thursday, April 19 and 20, gave an excellent two-part pro- gram as a celebration of the tercentenary of Shakespeare's death, which fell on Easter Sunday, April 23. The life and work of the greatest of all poets was reviewed. Two of the greatest and most familiar passages from his plays were read, songs from the plays and one of the period were sung and two of the dances were given. The audience insisted on having each of the dances repeated. The program was as follows : WEDNESDAY. Introduction by Lizzie Stewart, president of class. Poem — "The Pageant Passes" Anna White Piano Duet from "Midsummer Night's Dream." Mabel Maultsby and Lou Ellen Dupree Biography of Shakespeare Nannie Mac. Brown Elizabethan Chorus— "Drink to Me Only with Thine Eyes" Class The Fame of Shakespeare, and Why We Should Study Him. .Fannie Lee Spier Elizabethan Dance — "Green Sleeve" Twelve members of the class THURSDAY. The Works of Shakespeare Mary Cowell Vocal Duet — "Tell Me Where is Fancy Bred". . .Helen Bell and Gertrude Cook Shakespeare's Theatre Ophelia O'Brian Elizabethan Chorus — "Hark, Hark, the Lark" Class Readings from Shakespeare — (a) The Seven Ages of Man from "As You Like it." School Activities 87 (b) Portia's Speech on Mercy and Justice — "Merchant of Venice," Viola Kilpatrick Elizabethan Dance — "Ribbon Dance" Twelve members of class Class Song. The crowning class social affair of the school year was held May 8. Both Juniors as well as Seniors had awaited this hig event with much anticipation. Further details of the Junior-Senior reception will be found in the next issue. The second year Academic, or "B," Class of the Training School held their annual assembly exercises on Saturday morning, April 22. They presented an interesting Shakespearean program. Members of the class representing some of the women in Shakespeare's plays gave short scenes in which women alone appear. The class marched in singing an old English song, "There was an Old English Gentleman." Cellie Ferrell explained the program and introduced the characters. Eosalind and Celia, Sophia Cooper and Bessie Lee Russell; Juliet and the nurse, Vivian Hudnell and Lizzie Smith ; Ophelia, Ethel Smith ; Hero and Ursula, Flora Barnes and Helen Crofton; Beatrice, Claudia Teel; Cordelia, Louise Croom; Cleopatra, Irene Wiggins; Bianca and Katherine, Ethel Stanfield and Roberta Floyd; Portia and ISTerissa, Bernie Allen and Fannie Bishop. During the program, "It was a lover and his lass" from "As You Like It," and "Sigh no More, Ladies," from "Much Ado About Nothing," were sung by the class. As introductory to the scenes from "The Merchant of Venice" the record "Tell Me Where is Fancy Bred" was played on the Victrola. The class song, which is a rollicking parody on "Under the Greenwood Tree," was sung at the close. Miss Camille Robinson, president of the class, conducted the devotional exercises. On Saturday evening, April 15, after the regular business meeting of each class the "A," or first year Academic class, entertained its sister class, the Juniors, in the recreation hall. The hall was attractively decorated with pennants and the "A" Class colors, green and white. The guests were met at the door by Misses Thelma Smith and Rena Harrison. They were given pencils and paper and each drew a number from a box which aided them in securing a partner for an advertisement contest which followed. Pictures from advertisements were hung on the wall and the contestants were to guess what each advertised. A prize was given to the couple who guessed correctly the most advertisements. Music and dancing were enjoyed throughout the evening. Ice-cream was served by members of the class. Everybody had a jolly good time. 88 The Tkainino School Quabteely Athletics Volley Ball, which is a new sport in the school, has caused much excitement and friendly rivalry this spring. In the preliminary games the "A" and "F" classes were the winners. The tournament games were played during the second week of May. These games count towards the winning of the general athletic cup. The "A" Class won in the tournament. The tennis games preliminary to the tournament were played during the first week of May. Tennis has more points to its credit than any other form of athletics ; therefore, the victory was an extremely hard fought one. The final games were played during the second week of May. The Senior class won the championship from the Juniors. Four classes came near the same average in cross-country walking. The competition in this sport was quite keen. The walks are required to be three miles long and they have been made especially delightful this spring by occasional picnic suppers. The walkers take lunches with them on these days, and instead of being back by the regular dinner hour, spend that time in the woods. At first the group of walkers was not so large as to require more than one chaperon, but recently the crowd has become so large that several groups had to be formed. The "B" Class won the championship in walking. The Senior Class won the general athletic cup as they had first place in tennis and second place in walking. Y. w. a A. The officers and cabinet members for the year 1916-17 are as follows: Martha O'Xeal, President ; Juanita Weedon, Vice-President ; Lillie Mae Whitehead, Secretary ; Agnes Hunt, Treasurer ; Mabel Maultsby, Chair- man of Music Committee; Helen Gardner, Chairman of Social Com- mittee: Viola Finch, Chairman of Mission Study Committee; Gertnide Cook, Chairman of Poster Committee; Ina McGlohon, Chairman of Room Committee; Hallie Jones, Chairman of Bible Study Committee; Ethel Stanfield, Chairman of Sunshine Committee; Fannie Lee Spier, Chairman Religious Committee. The officers were elected at the regular business meeting on Saturday night, March 4. After the business meeting was over the "Whites" entertained the "Blues." At the first of the jubilee month the Y. W. C. A. girls were divided into two groups, namely, the "Whites" and "Blues." The object of each group was to get as many new members as possible and it was agreed then that the one getting the fewest number should entertain the more successful. School Activities 89 The Sunday evening service on March 5 was a song service. After the service, Miss Muffly played some new records on the Victrola and most of the girls stayed to hear them. Miss Marguerite Higgs, a Greenville girl who took an active part in Y. W. C. A. work at Meredith, led in the services of the Y, W. C. A. on March 12. The lesson made a special appeal to the students because it was presented as from one school girl to another. She read the Scripture lesson from the first chapter of Romans. The main idea of the lesson was that with increased training of the mind comes increased responsi- bility to our fellowmen. Rev. J. H. Griffith, rector of the Episcopal Church of Kinston, con- ducted the services at the Training School on Sunday evening, March 19. The young women were greatly impressed hy the magnetism and charm- ing personality of Mr. Griffith, and by his scholarly exposition of the lesson of the evening. He read as his lesson the nineteenth chapter of Matthew, and took his text from the fifteenth chapter of St. John : "Lord, we know not whither thou goest, and how can we know the way?" The question was asked by the mathematician of the apostolic family, Thomas, and was a human question. All of us are constantly asking questions about life and the meaning; he quoted a letter he had received from some one asking help in solving the problems of life. "All human questions have divine answers," he declared. Christ's answer to Thomas is an answer for all, "I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life," simple words, but speaking volumes of information. The Greeks, to whom we are greatly indebted, were always asking questions about life, what was the beginning, the end, and what the true way to live, and Mr. Griffith explained the Greek terms for these ideas and the significance of the answer. But the first real and complete answer was given in Hebrews, where the declaration is made that Christ is the Alpha and the Omega. He further explained the philosophy of the Greeks, making the statement that the world today is full of Epi- cureans; he said that the Stoics were wrong in that they believed life was all bad if any of it was bad. The Christian belief goes far beyond either of these and says that life is good. Christ is the satisfaction of the heart and the mind, and we need nothing but Christ. At the close Mr. Griffith brought the lesson home to the young women by asking them what questions they were asking of life ; what they most desired: a butterfly existence, gold, to be better dressed, or popularity? He reminded them that they came here to get light ; not simply intellec- tual light, but light to help them to work out the problems of life, reach- ing forward into the future. He urged them to realize their gifts of mind, etc. He urged them not to be satisfied with little things ; to re- member that every soul has the divine spark in it ; everybody has a work 90 The Thaininq School Quartekly of service to do; a woman can Avin by tenderness, forgiveness, sympathy and love. His personal appeal at the close left a strong impression upon the minds of the young women. Mrs. J. J. Walker, of Greenville, led in the Sunday evening service on March 26. She read the Scripture lesson from Matthew 25, and then she gave a vivid description of the Y. W. C. A. in Chicago. At the close of the service Miss Edith Lee, one of Mrs. Walker's pupils in Expression, gave a reading. The installation services of the new Y. W. C. A. officers which were held at the Training School on Sunday evening, April 9, were simple and impressive. Allen Gardner, the retiring president, gave a review of her work; of what she had done and the pleasure she had taken in the Y. W. C. A. work. Martha O'lSTeal, the new president, read the names of the girls she has chosen for her cabinet for the present year. She said that because of her inexperience she did not have a definite policy worked out, but that the association would strive to promote higher ideals, develop a genuine spirit of service and increase their knowledge of Christ. Mr. Austin, representing the advisory committee of the association, read the Scripture lesson from ISTehemiah 2. Then he took up the thought where the president left off and impressed upon the members the necessity of their loyal support to the Y. W. C. A. work. Mr. F. C. Harding led the Sunday evening services April 2. It meant a great deal to the young women to hear a strong talk full of high ideals from a man from out in the world, one who is not a minister, but one who had a big message, and he presented a close study of certain phases of the life of St. Paul, from which great lessons were drawn. It was interesting to note the point of view of the lawyer; no one else would have seen the important part that Paul's adherence to the law played in the dissemination of the Gospel. He took the stand that Julius Caesar had as much a part in opening the door to the world as Paul himself did, because it was through his work in extending the Roman empire that it was possible for Paul to become a Roman citizen and the right to appeal to Rome, and thus become a missionary. The manhood of Paul rather than the spirituality of Paul appealed to Caesar, yet God was speaking and working through him. He brought out the idea that Napoleon was, in a sense, an inspired man. In the application he said that it may be that the United States now, through the Mexican expedition, may be helping to work out a divine plan ; it may be by this means that a part of the world will be lifted up and improved. School Activities 91 In the direct application to the girls Mr. Harding urged the young women to remember that they would be forces in moulding public opin- ion, and impressed upon them the importance of remembering that they must have high ideals and help work out God's plans, Mrs. Jeter led the services on Sunday evening, April 9. She gave Solomon's description of the all-round ideal woman as given in Proverbs. Mrs. Jeter's explanation of the chapter was excellent. She brought out various phases of woman's life. The services of Sunday evening, April 16, were led by Miss Jenkins, She read the chapter in the Bible in which Christ explains why he uses the parable and gives several parables to illustrate his point. She then read three modern prose allegories from "Story Tell Lib," by Slosson, "The Shet-up Posy," "The Horse That Believed He'd Get There," and "All Sorts of Bundles." Rev. H. N. Blanchard, pastor of the Memorial Baptist Church, con- ducted the Y. W. C, A. services on Sunday evening, April 23. The Scripture reading was Luke 6. His theme was "Devotional Bible Study and Prayer." His text was Mark 1 :35. In his opening remarks he spoke of how much the Y. M. C, A. and the Y. W, C. A. appealed to him, for it was the Y. M. C. A. at A. and M, College that led him to enter the ministry. He made his decision while at the Y, M, C. A. Conference at Asheville, to which he was sent as a delegate. In developing his theme he emphasized the value of observing morning watch, first giving the meaning and then telling why we should do it. First, he said that Christ's life was a life of prayer, thus teaching us by His own example what He commanded us to do. Second, if He needed to pray, how much more do we need to pray. Third, it is impossible to live close to God all the time; therefore, in the beginning of the day, before we are tempted, we should put on the armor of prayer. Fourth, we should emphasize Bible study more in school life, in order to form habits of prayer, for good habits are as hard to break as bad habits. He said that the woman who does the greatest things is not neces- sarily the most popular, or the most talented, but the one who "takes time to be Holy." "Too busy" is not an excuse for neglecting prayer, for it is only the "busy" who have time to do anything worth while." In giving instances bearing on this point, he mentioned that the boys at the West Point Military Academy have only forty-five spare minutes each day; and yet it is said that over fifty per cent are obsei-ving the morning watch. The students were very much impressed by the sincerity and intense earnestness of Mr, Blanchard. 92 The Training School C^iaktekly The Y. W. C, A., on Sunday evening, Ai)ril i2t), was led by Superin- teudeut Hoy Taylor, of the Greenville Graded Schools. Mr. Taylor read a i)art of Matthew 5, the sermon on the mount. He put down one proposition and developed it logically, giving an example of straight thinking, one of the things he urged on his listeners. He presented the one big idea of "Be Ye Perfect Even as your Father in Heaven is Perfect." He developed this by a comparison of the material world, in which there is no such thing as lost energy or wasted matter, with the physical world. How far this goes over into the mental life he said he was not sure, but he believed it applied there too, but he was sure that there was a potentiality in every life. The spiritual life is so tied up with the others that it is hard to tell where they leave off and that begins. In the development of his theme Mr. Taylor presented some very interesting points which he proved very logically and forcefully. He asked many pertinent questions about life which made the girls think seriously. He said there could be only one superlative, one best, in each life. He said the responsibility for the direction of each life rests with the individual, and therefore he would not give directions, but sugges- tions. These suggestions were good, sound common sense principles which harmonize with the great laws of the universe. School Notes Sunday, June 4, conimencenient sermon by Dr. Thos. Commence- jj^ j^^^^. ^^ Westminster, Md., President of Western ment Program ,^,,^11 Maryland College. Sunday evening, 8 :30, sermon before the Young Women's Christian Association, Kev. W. B. Oliver, of Florence, South Carolina. Monday, June 5, 6 :30 p. m.. Class Day exercises. Tuesday, June 6, 10 a. m., meeting of the Board of Trustees; meeting of Alumnas Association ; 8 p. m., Alumnse dinner. Wednesday, June 7, 10 :30 a. m., annual address before the gradu- ating class, Hon. T. W. Bickett; 11:30 a. m., graudating exercises. The Greenville Reflector had this to say: "A very *jt* \f' large audience filled the Training School auditorium and Mrs. Macy ° Monday night, May 1, to hear Miss Helen Keller, Green- ville and the neighboring towns being well represented. All were anx- ious to see and hear the most remarkable woman in the world about whom they had read much. Blind, deaf and dumb from early childhood, these physical handicaps have been overcome, and few people are more highly educated or more entertaining than Miss Keller. Not only is she intelligent, she is brilliant, cheerful, witty, the very soul of happi- ness, and gets more enjoyment out of life than the majority of normal people. Miss Keller has learned to express herself in speech to a degree that it is remarkable, and can make herself be heard distinctly over a large auditorium. "The entertainment of Monday evening began with an address by Mrs. Macy, who for twenty-five years has been Miss Keller's teacher, and to whom her wonderful development is largely due. Mrs. Macy started at the beginning of this blind and deaf girl's education and gave an outline of how she had first learned objects, next, that everything had a name and on step by step until she learned to articulate and to speak though she could not hear her own voice. Mrs. Macy's sketch of Miss Keller's life was truly interesting and prepared the audience for the wonderful revelation that followed when Miss Keller herself was led upon the stage. Smiling, bowing and with a countenance aglow with happiness, this young woman whose fame is world-wide stood before her audience. "That the audience might first get accustomed to Miss Keller's enuncia- tion and understand her more readily, there was some conversation between her teacher and herself. Miss Keller recited the 23d Psalm and then delivered her message of happiness. She showed that she was not denied the joys and beauties of life because of her physical defects, but 94 The Training School Quabterly that true happiness is in the heart, and comes through making the most of one's surroundings and doing all possible for the happiness of others. "After the address the audience was permitted to ask questions which Miss Keller would answer. With one hand resting upon the lips and throat of Mrs. Macy, who acted as interpreter, repeating the questions which Miss Keller answered promptly. In some of the answers the large degree of wit she possessed was displayed. "Many times the audience applauded, which Miss Keller recognized and appreciated. Soon after coming on the stage she detected the pres- ence of a lily by its odor. She found and caressed the flower and spoke of its beauty and fragrance. "Greenville people certainly appreciated the Training School's getting Miss Keller to come here and give them the opportunity to hear her." Educational When Col. Olds visited the school in the winter he Trip to suggested that the girls be given an opportunity to spend Raleigh ^ day in Raleigh and he offered to act as host and guide. Miss Davis made inquiry among the girls and found a number who wished to take such a trip. Many of the students are from the extreme eastern part of the State and have not had the opportunity of visiting the Capital. Others who had been to Raleigh had never visited the various points of interest. The result is told in the News and Observer of May 6, as follows : "Eighty-eight of the students of the East Carolina Teachers Training School at Greenville, under the chaperonage of two of the teachers, Miss Sallie Joyner Davis and Miss Lewis, spent nine and a half delightful hours in Raleigh yesterday without a dull moment in all that time. "They were met at the Union Station by Col. Fred A. Olds and Prof. L. C. Brogden, of the State Department of Public Instruction, and were escorted to a local department store, the headquarters, where Mr. J. B. Pearce presented each with a bouquet of sweetpeas. They then retired to the LaFayette Cafe, where they were the guests of the Raleigh Mer- chants' Association. "They next visited the Commercial National Bank, took a look at the city auditorium and the new Wake County courthouse. They were received later by Governor Locke Craig at the executive offices. Among the students were three cousins of Governor Craig, all from Gates County. All the others. Governor Craig claimed, were his cousins also. A photo- graph of the party was made with the Governor standing well in front. This occurred at the monument to the Women of the Confederacy. The Church of the Good Shepherd was later visited. "The State Museum was the next objective point. There they were met by Curator Brimley and his assistant, T. W. Adickes, and were shown through the entire place, including the workshop. They were School Notes 95 here given souvenirs in the way of postcards. State Entomologist Franklin Sherman joined the party and remained with them for some time. "A visit was made to the Governor's mansion, which the Governor had placed at the disposal of the party, telling them it was their house. From it they went to the establishment of a well known ice cream manufacturer where they were met by the owner, his wife and friends, who served the students with punch and ice cream and cake. "The State School for the Blind was also visited. There the party was met by Superintendent John E. Ray and shown through the wonderful workshop in which the older girls, under the direction of Miss Davis, do all sorts of things. They took a special view of the boys' woodwork- ing and sloyd shop, which astonished them. They saw the blind chil- dren at play and visited the library where the blind read with their finger tips. "The next stunt of the day began at the Capitol Square after that building had been visited and well explained, and the important statues in the grounds pointed out. This was under the management of Mr. J. B. Pearce and consisted of a two-hour ride in four big motor trucks, each loaded to the limit. This tour included the beautiful grounds of the Central Hospital for the Insane, the Agricultural and Mechanical College. "The students of the college cheered the girls who returned the com- pliment with their school yell. The Y. M. C. A. was also inspected, and then the route was taken for the Country Club, where President Charles E. Johnson, Jr., had provided lemonade -galore. The beauty of the golf links was a delight to the girls, a number of whom had never been up-country and to whom the hills and the water falls were wonders. "Arriving at the State Administration Building the visitors went to the Supreme Court room where they were met by Chief Justice Walter Clark and State Auditor "Wood. Col. Olds introduced Chief Justice Clark, after he had placed Misses Davis and Lewis, the teachers, and three of the students in the chairs of the justices. Chief Justice Clark made a brief talk in which he said he expected soon to see women grace the bench. He was warmly applauded and was assured by the visitors that they were all suffragettes, to the last one. Auditor Wood was next presented and declared that Raleigh had not before been visited by a group of more charming young Avomen and declared the State was proud of them and the school they represented. The veteran marshal of the court, Mr. Robert H. Bradley, was introduced. His thirty years of service was referred to by Colonel Olds. "The party next went to the Hall of History, where in the portrait gallery Auditor Wood, himself a Confederate Veteran, presented to the E'orth Carolina Historical Commission on behalf of Mrs. W. P. Roberts, an oil portrait of the late General W. P. Roberts, whom he characterized 96 The Training School Qdartebly as an officer of great ability and courage, the youngest of the Confederate brigadiers. The portrait was accepted by Colonel Olds, who referred to its position on the wall, next to the portrait of the two other Confederate cavalry generals, Rufus Barringer, of Charlotte, and James B. Gordon, of Wilkes, and to the fact that he had brought the latter portrait to Raleigh this week. "This ended the day's events and at 9 :30 the Norfolk Southern train pulled out of Union Station, Colonel Olds telling the splendid group of young women good night, and saying that next Friday evening he would be with them again in their own school auditorium where he will put on a fine concert by the full bands of the State School for the Blind. "The teachers and all the students desired Colonel Olds to express to the people of Raleigh their unbounded gratitude for the greatest day of their lives, and to say that the whole school appreciates it, and their President, Robert H. Wright, sends his greetings to Raleigh, and his assurance that this visit of the teachers and students is to be made an annual event, one of the most important of the school year." Tired, but happy, the sight-seers returned to the school at 1 :15 a. m. the next day. At assembly the 88 marched on the rostrum so they could see how the auditorium appeared with 88 vacant seats, and so that those who remained at home could see how the Raleigh crowd appeared. Then the 88 told in song, to the tune of "Tenting Tonight," the events of the memorable day. The refrain was only "A. and M., A. and M.," etc. One of the group gave this report of the day : The visit to the new State Building was the significant event — the capstone of the day. We reached it after it was lighted up for the evening, and never will we forget the impression of its brilliancy and simplicity. We went straight to the Hall of History, where we witnessed the presentation of the portrait of Brigadier General Roberts by one of his comrades. State Auditor Wood. In a few well chosen words. Colonel Olds accepted the portrait. This little ceremony was specially arranged for us, and it contributed not a little bit to our pleasure. From the Hall we went to the Supreme Court room and met Chief Justice Clark and Librarian Bradley. In his introduction of Judge Clark Colonel Olds spoke of him "as the State's leading champion of the cause of your sex." The brief but inspirational talk of the State's great jurist gave us the feeling that the cause which he champions must win in the end. After this we followed Colonel Olds through the Hall of History and heard with glowing pride his story of that wonderful collection. Our day closed here. At nine-thirty a tired, but an enthusiastic, happy set of girls was on its way back to Greenville. One of them, when asked what she had enjoyed most, voiced the sentiment of every girl in her answer : "Colonel Olds. He has given me the greatest day I ever had." If "our day" is a fair sample of how he spends his days, he is in the highest sense of the word, a benefactor of his State. School Notes 97 Banquet to ^n Saturday evening, April 1, a six o'clock dinner Hope Fire was given at the Training School in honor of the Hope Company ]i'[j-Q Company as an expression of the appreciation the authorities of the school feel for the excellent work the fire company did in saving the dining hall from total destruction just one year before. All the members of the fire company and their wives, all of the people connected with the Training School who do not make their homes in the school, and Mr. E. H. Evans, and Mr. Allsbrook, who did such effective work in getting the building repaired for use, with their wives, were the invited guests of the school, making in all about fifty. Some of these could not accept the invitation, however. After the guests had assembled the young ladies of the school dressed in white marched in by twos, singing as they filed in. The new dining room was beautiful in the soft lights. The tables were decorated with the school colors, purple and gold, violets being the chief flowers used. The place cards were jonquils in water colors. An elegant five-course dinner was served. The young ladies who were waiting on the table brought in the "pineapple pie," as it was called on the menu, and placed on each table to be cut at the table. There was much merriment when the pies were cut and pine sawdust and apple peelings poured out. This was the only touch that was a reminder of the fact that it was All Fools' Day. Prof. H. E. Austin, chairman of the committee on arrangements, acted as toastmaster. He paid a high tribute to firemen in general, but to the members of the Hope Fire Company in particular. He assured them that the dinner was not for the purpose of recalling the unpleasant features of the night of the fire, but for the sole purpose of expressing the gratitude those connected with the school felt to the company for preventing it from being worse than it was. He called on Professor Wilson, who is secretary of the board of trustees, to say something. He quoted the famous story of the mayor, who, in trying to get the attention of the crowd who were assembled to hear Vice-President Marshall, said, "Listen ! I am not going to make a speech ; I am going to say something." Professor Wilson thanked the company in behalf of the board for what they had done for the school. He made a witty speech, telling an apt story. President Wright next spoke for the school. He told the guests that shortly after the fire the board of trustees directed the president to give a dinner to the fire company to show the great appreciation that the school felt for the prompt, brave, and efficient work the company did on the night of iVpril 1, 1915. This dinner was to be given at some time when conditions were favorable. The illness and death of Governor Jarvis, and the fact that the dining hall and new kitchen were not com- pleted until late in the year prevented the carrying out of the wishes of the board until so long after the fire that it was deemed best to wait until 98 The Training School Qiautkuly the evening of the anniversary of the fire. He told of the great interest Governor Jarvis took in the planning of the new dining room; he planned practically every detail of the building as it now stands and it is well- nigh perfect. The board determined that his ideas should be carried out and bent every energy to that end. This, declared President Wright, was the last piece of work that Governor Jarvis planned for the school. President Wright rehearsed the trying situation that had to be faced the night of the fire and spoke feelingly of the loyalty of the community in rallying to the emergency, when every home was opened to the students and faculty. He paid high tributes to the efficient work of the fire company that saved all but the roof of the building. He commended especially the contractors and workmen who left their regular work and came to the rescue of the school, getting the building in shape so quickly that only one week's time was lost from school work, doing the work in what even yet seems an incredibly ^hort time. After President Wright sat down Miss Lalla Wynne, of the Senior Class, proposed a toast to the "fire laddies" which was echoed by the entire school. Then all of the young ladies sang a song to the "fire laddies." At the close of the dinner, Fire Chief Overton, in behalf of the fire- men, expressed the keen pleasure they felt in having their work, which was only responding to the call of duty, so much appreciated. He gave a glimpse into the life of a volunteer fireman, merely touching on the dangers, and giving as the motive that urges him on to fight fire that it Avas the answer to the still small voice that whispers, "Go, help as you can." He said that in the whole twenty years that he had been a fire fighter this Avas the first time any such appreciation had been shown to the firemen, and on the other hand, their part was often kicks and knocks. He assured the school that whenever their services were needed the Hope Fire Company was ready and willing to respond to their call. The occasion was altogether a most festive aifair and unique in that it was a happy anniversary of what at the time seemed a disaster. As President Wright aptly said, "There is some good in every bad thing if you take it right." — Greemnlh Reflector, April 3. ,.^^ „ . Mr. Charles IST. Xewcomb srave an artistic and charm- IncPrincc Cjj^p.. ing interpretation of "The Prince Chap" on the evening of March 20. He turned from the part of generous Peyton, "the Prince Chap," to that of the English Initler, or "Puckers," the "King," or "Claudia," the little girl who furnishes the motive for the story, with ease and swiftness. It is a difficult art to make characters stand before an audience as real personalities with their mannerisms and peculiarities of speech, when there is no stage setting, no costuming and when different people School Notes 99 take the parts, but when only one does it all as Mr. Newcomb did, this is art. The expressions of pathos, humor, tenderness and various other shades of feeling were expressed without exaggeration. His gestures were simple, only such as were needed to help give the right turn to the thought. The audience was indebted to the Lanier Literary Society for having Mr. Newcomb. This is the fifth year this society has brought to the school some treat. Heretofore they have brought some speaker of literary reputation, but this year they decided to change and give another kind of literary entertainment. Each year the members of the Poe Society and the faculty are the special guests of the Laniers. The Singing Class of the Oxford Orphanage gave their concert at the auditorium of the Training School to a large and appreciative audience one evening during April. The people of Greenville are always glad to have the class with them, and nothing can be done too good for them. The receipts were $105. Eev. J. Clyde Turner, of Greensboro, while conducting a revival service at the Memorial Baptist Church of Greenville, made a talk to the students of the Training School, at their morning assembly. The theme of this talk was "Fidelity." He said that all fidelity could be summed up under fidelity to the Almighty God, and includes being faithful first of all to the convictions of one's soul. He believed whether one's place in the world be great or small all have ideals to which they should be faithful. He said a person, thus fulfilling his ideal, can look the whole world in the face and know that he has a right to demand respect from all; but he who does not strive towards this ideal loses respect for himself, respect for others and respect for God. Several concrete illustrations from public figures familiar to all made this message very forceful, and Mr. Turner delivered the message with such directness and sincerity that it made a strong impression on the young women of the school. Mr. E. L. Middleton, Sunday School Secretary for the Baptist Church, conducted exercises and made a talk at the morning assembly of the Training School, during the spring term. "Efficiency" was the subject of his discussion, for which he gave this definition : "Doing the thing in hand in the very best way to get the largest results." It should be the aim of every person to make himself more efficient, declared Mr. Middleton. As he was talking to prospective teachers, he made the talk particularly vital by urging them to remember that efficiency means something more than the mere teaching of subjects; it means character building. While the teaching of religion is not allowed in the public schools, every teacher should be a religious teacher. 100 TnK Tkainino School Qiarterly There are two kinds of material tliat go into the making of human life, he said, vices and virtues. It is the teacher's part to develop the intellectual powers and virtues that make for the highest truth. Ihe sewing done by the students during the winter Sewing , , ", •, • ^ ^ e ^ J Exhibit term was placed on exhibit at the close oi the term, and the public was invited to inspect the work. This was done under the direction of Miss Armstrong, the teacher of Home Economics. The Junior Class is the only class that has lessons in sewing, but as this class numbered eighty-five, there was a large and creditable exhibit. Each member of the class was required to make a complete set of under- wear, a white dress, and a practical, everyday dress. This made the number of garments on exhibit amount to over five hundred. The white dresses were of soft material, flaxon, lawn or similar material, trimmed with dainty laces. The other dresses were of gingham or heavy white material. All dresses were made somewhat on the same general lines, but there was individuality shown in the trimming and details. The exhibit was arranged in the sewing room. The dresses were pinned to strips around the room or to burlap screens. The other gar- ments were neatly folded on tables. The decorations were of flowers and sweet myrtle. Ushers, wearing the dresses made during the term, showed the visitors around. The exhibit was indeed a credit to the sewing department. ^. The piano students in the Junior Class gave a recital Junior Piano ^ ^ ^ - ^ ■ t ./.-.r Recital ^^ school at six-thirty on the evening of May 4. The program was as follows : Minuet Haydn Leona Tucker, Loretta Joyner Scherzino WoUenhaupt Mamie Mac. Brown Serenade Koelling Mary Wooten At the Fountain Vangoel Ophelia O'Brian Sans Souci Woods Blanche Satterwhite, Ola Carawan Serenade Espagnole Becker Loretta Joyner Berceuse I. Gimsky Eunice Hoover Chanson Engel Mabel Maultsby Rustic Dance Schytle Mary Wooten, Ruth Lowder Bird Song Jensen Serenade in D Moszskowski Lou Ellen Dupree School Notes 101 "B" Piano A piano recital was given by the Mudents of the second year academic or "B" class during the second week of May, The program was as follows : 1. Second Valse Godard First Piano, Louise Groom Second Piano, Agnes Hunt 2. Gypsy Rondo Haydn Agnes Hunt 3. Pixie's Good-night Song Brown Octavia Dunn 4. The Chase Van Lear Irene Wiggins 5. Barcarolle Burgmuller On the Meadow Lichner Cora Lancaster 6. Chanson Triste Tschalkowsky Helen Lyon 7. Valsette Boranski Hide and Seek Schytle Ethel Smith 8. Toccatina Caprice Benson Bess Tillitt 9. By the Brookside Karzanoff Louise Croom 10. Metzi Katchen Behr First Piano — Helen Lyon, Olive Lang Second Piano — Cora Lancaster, Irene Wiggins Commence- The men of the faculty of the Training School have ment been in great demand as commencement speakers this Addresses spring. Their engagements were as follows : President "Wright, Enon School, Granville County, March 30; at Granville County Commencement, March 31; South Mills, Camden County, April 25; Garysburg, Northampton County, May 2; Bonlee High School, Chatham County, May 10; Biscoe High School, Moore County, June 1 ; and at Tarboro, Edgecombe County, June 2. Mr. C. W. Wilson, Galloway's Cross Eoads, Pitt County, March 10; Walstonburg, Pitt County, March 23 ; Beaufort County Commencement, March 31 ; Wenborn School, Greene County, April 12 ; Campbell's Creek School, Beaufort County, April 21 ; Franklin Graded School, Beaufort County, April 24; Swan Quarter High School, Hyde County, April 28; Palling Creek High School, Wayne County, May 2 ; and Leggett School, Edgecombe County, May 5. Mr. H. E. Austin, Dixon School, Pitt County, April 14; Coward's School, Greene County, April 18; Arapahoe, Pamlico County, April 21; and Everett's School, Martin County, May 5, Mr. L. K. Meadows, Tarboro School, Edgecombe County, March 18; Elks School, Pitt County, April 12 ; Sunbury High School, Gat^s County, April 25; and Fountain School, Pitt County, April 27. 7 102 The Training School Quabteely President Robert H. Wright attended the meeting of the Southern Conference, which met in New Orleans, April 17-20, the week before Easter. After his return he gave the students a most interesting de- scription of the city of New Orleans. They felt almost as if they, too, had taken a peep into the old French part of the city, and had walked up the levee to the river. Miss Daisy Bailey "Waitt attended the annual meeting of the North Carolina Federation of Women's Clubs, which met in High Point the first week in May. Miss Waitt is chairman of the Department of Education. President Wright conducted a class in child study during the late winter and early spring. The class was composed of about forty of the women of Greenville, most of them mothers. The text used was Kilpat- rick's "Fundamentals of Child Study." The members of the class were enthusiastic over the course and regretted that it could not continue longer. All interested in the planting of the campus, and that is everybody connected with the school, rejoiced to see Mr. Busbee arrive on the morning of April 6 and begin the planting. Miss Graham is building a residence on a lot adjoining the school grounds. She and two other members of the faculty will keep house together next year. Miss Muffly and Mrs. Wright attended the Music Festival May 4-5. The group that visited Raleigh are under many obligations to the Boylan-Pearce Company Department Store and to the George White Ice Cream Company for entertainment during their visit to Raleigh. The Merchants' Association entertained them at luncheon.